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Table 3 Factors associated with women’s failure to be screened for syphilis during antenatal care in Ghana

From: Factors associated with failure to screen for syphilis during antenatal care in Ghana: a case control study

Characteristic Unscreened women N = 160, n (%) Screened women N = 327, n (%) Crude OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Age group, years    P = 0.83; P trend = 0.49 P = 0.94; P trend = 0.66
18-19 22 (13.8) 33 (10.1) 1.47 (0.77, 2.79) 1.13 (0.53, 2.38)
20-24 44 (27.5) 92 (28.1) 1.05 (0.64, 1.74) 0.86 (0.48, 1.53)
25-29 45 (28.1) 99 (30.3) 1 1
30-34 26 (16.3) 54 (16.5) 1.06 (0.59, 1.90) 0.86 (0.45, 1.65)
35-46 23 (14.4) 49 (15.0) 1.03 (0.56, 1.90) 0.86 (0.43, 1.71)
Education    P = 0.04; P trend = 0.01 P = 0.08; P trend = 0.02
No formal education 33 (20.6) 41 (12.5) 2.48 (1.12, 5.50) 2.84 (1.07, 7.53)
Basic education 115 (71.9) 249 (76.2) 1.42 (0.72, 2.83) 1.67 (0.72, 3.89)
At least secondary education 12 (7.5) 37 (11.3) 1 1
Occupation of spouse    P = 0.07 P = 0.10
Professional 13 (8.1) 29 (8.9) 0.85 (0.42, 1.73) 1.27 (0.56, 2.86)
Vocational 76 (47.5) 144 (44.0) 1 1
Trading/business 31 (19.4) 95 (29.1) 0.62 (0.38, 1.01) 0.63 (0.36, 1.10)
Manual/farmer 36 (22.5) 57 (17.4) 1.20 (0.72, 1.98) 1.23 (0.68, 2.25)
Unemployed 4 (2.5) 2 (0.6) 3.79 (0.68, 21.16) 5.11 (0.80, 32.47)
Registered with the Free Maternity Care Scheme    P = 0.09  
Yes 139 (86.9) 300 (91.7) 1 -
No 21 (13.1) 27 (8.3) 1.68 (0.92, 3.07) -
Ever had spontaneous abortion    P = 0.10  
Yes 30 (18.7) 43 (13.2) 1.52 (0.91, 2.53) -
No 130 (81.3) 284 (86.8) 1 -
Ever had any adverse pregnancy Outcome    P = 0.06 P = 0.006
Yes 47 (29.4) 71 (21.7) 1.50 (0.98, 2.31) 1.98 (1.22, 3.23)
No 113 (70.6) 256 (78.3) 1 1
Facility where ANC was attended most    P < 0.001 P < 0.001
Public health facility 119 (74.4) 314 (96.0) 1 1
Private health facility 41 (25.6) 13 (4.0) 8.32 (4.31, 16.08) 11.09 (5.48, 22.48)
Average travel cost per visit to the clinic (Ghana cedis)    P = 0.002; P trend = 0.002  
<0.50 34 (30.4) 26 (14.3) 2.83 (1.46, 5.51) -
0.5- < 1.00 55 (49.1) 146 (58.2) 1.13 (0.64, 1.99) -
1.00+ 23 (20.5) 69 (27.5) 1 -
Number of ANC visits    P = 0.02  
1-3 36 (22.5) 46 (14.1) 1.77 (1.09, 2.88) -
4-16 124 (77.5) 281 (85.9) 1 -
HIV screening    P = 0.002 P = 0.001
Yes 126 (78.8) 293 (89.6) 1 1
No 34 (21.2) 34 (10.4) 2.33 (1.38, 3.91) 2.78 (1.50, 5.13)
Number of IPT p doses given    P < 0.001; P trend < 0.001 P = 0.002; P trend < 0.001
0 18 (11.2) 13 (4.0) 4.05 (1.88, 8.71) 3.72 (1.60, 8.68)
1-2 75 (46.9) 118 (36.1) 1.86 (1.25, 2.78) 1.78 (1.14, 2.79)
3 67 (41.9) 196 (59.9) 1 1
  1. OR- Odds ratio; CI- confidence interval; ANC-Antenatal care; HIV-Human Immunodeficiency Virus; IPTp-intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy.