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Table 2 Neonatal infections in developing countries (2000-May 2014)

From: Burden of bacterial resistance among neonatal infections in low income countries: how convincing is the epidemiological evidence?

Author, country, and study year Disease type and age Setting Neonatal Isolation rate and aetiology*
Sub-Saharan Africa     
Blomberg et al. [10] Bacteremia urban, hospital recruitment 54 early onset (EOS) isolates : 31 late onset (LOS) isolates:
Tanzania 2001-2002 <7 yrs   Klebsiella spp. EOS 14 (26%), LOS 7 (23%)
    S. aureus EOS 6 (11%), LOS 5 (16%)
    E. coli EOS 6 (11%), LOS 3 (10%)
    Group B Streptococcus EOS 2 (4%), LOS 1 (3%)
Sigaúque et al. [21] Bacteremia rural, hospital recruitment 154 isolates: 16% blood cultures positive
Mozambique 2001-2006 <15 yrs   S. aureus 60 (39%)
    Group B Streptococcus 31 (20%)
    E. coli 9 (6%)
    S. pneumoniae 7 (5%)
Nielsen et al. [17] Bacteremia rural, hospital recruitment 23 isolates:  
Ghana 2007-2009 <5 yrs   S. aureus 6 (26%)
    Klebsiella spp. 6 (26%)
    Streptococcus spp. 3 (13%)
    E. coli 3 (13%)
    Non-tyhoid Salmonella 2 (9%)
Gray et al. [29] Group B streptococcus urban, hospital recruitment 290 isolates: 12% blood cultures positive
Malawi 2004-2005 <90 days   Group B Streptococcus 48 (17%)
Talbert et al. [24] Neonatal sepsis rural, hospital recruitment 474 isolates: 9% blood cultures positive (25 infants had 2 bacterial species isolated)
Kenya 2001-2009 <60 days   Klebsiella spp. 57 (13%)
    S. aureus 55 (12%)
    Acinetobacter spp. 48 (11%)
    E. coli 41 (9%)
    Group B Streptococcus 32 (7%)
    86 isolates from CSF samples : 4% CSF cultures positive
    S. pneumoniae 17 (20%)
    Group B Streptococcus 16 (19%)
    Salmonella spp. 10 (12%)
Ojukwu et al. [18] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 33 isolates: 24% blood cultures positive
Nigeria 2002-2003 0-28 days   S. aureus 15 (45%)
    E. coli 6 (18%)
    Klebsiella spp. 3 (9%)
    Group B Streptococcus 1 (3%)
Mugalu et al. [15] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 110 isolates: 37% blood or CSF cultures positive
Uganda 2002 used WHO guidelines   S. aureus 69 (63%)
    E. coli 17 (15%)
    Group B Streptococcus 7 (6%)
Shitaye et al. [19] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 135 isolates: 45% blood cultures positive
Ethiopia 2006-2007 0-28 days   Klebsiella spp. 53 (39%)
    S. aureus 30 (22%)
    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 10 (7%)
Mhada et al. Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 52 early onset (EOS) isolates : 22 late onset (LOS) isolates: 22.4% blood cultures positive
Tanzania 2009-2010 0-28 days   S. aureus EOS 15 (29%), LOS 12 (55%)
    Klebsiella spp. EOS 17 (33%), LOS 5 (23%)
    E. coli EOS 10 (19%), LOS 4 (18%)
    Staphylococcus epidermidis EOS 6 (12%), LOS 0 (0%)
    Group B Streptococcus EOS 1 (2%), LOS 0 (0%)
Kiwanuka et al. [13] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 19 early onset (EOS) isolates : 7 late onset (LOS) isolates: 33% blood cultures
Uganda 2010 <1 month   S. aureus EOS 13 (68%), LOS 3 (43%)
    E. coli EOS 3 (16%), LOS 1 (14%)
    Klebsiella spp. EOS 1 (5%), LOS 1 (14%)
    Group B Streptococcus EOS 1 (5%), LOS 0 (0%)
SE Asia     
Stoesser et al. [22] Bacteremia urban, hospital recruitment 65 isolates:
Cambodia 2007-2011 <16 yrs   Klebsiella spp. 14 (22%)
    S. aureus 9 (14%)
    Enterobacter spp. 4 (6%)
    E. coli 3 (5%)
    Streptococcus pyogenes 3 (5%)
Kruse et al. [30] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 399 isolates: 17% blood cultures positive
Vietnam 2009-2010 <28 days   Klebsiella spp. 78 (20%)
    Acinetobacter spp. 58 (15%)
    E. coli 21 (5%)
    Enterobacter spp. 16 (4%)
    S. aureus 11 (3%)
    Morganella spp. 8 (2%)
    Pseudomonas spp. 6 (2%)
    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 175 (44%)
India subcontinent     
Mir et al. [28] Omphalitis with sepsis urban, community recruitment 432 isolates: 64% umbilical cord cultures positive
Pakistan 2004-2007 neonates (<1 month)   S. aureus 225 (52%)
    Streptococcus pyogenes 78 (18%)
    Group B Streptococcus 43 (10%)
Jain et al. [26] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 350 isolates: 48% blood cultures positive for bacteria
India 2001-2002 Not defined   Klebsiella spp. 86 (25%)
    Enterobacter spp. 80 (23%)
    E. coli 49 (14%)
Sundaram et al. [23] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 527 early onset (EOS) isolates § : 364 late onset (LOS) isolates:
India 1995–1998, 2001-2006 Not defined   S. aureus EOS 108 (20%), LOS 112 (31%)
    K. pneumoniae EOS 62 (12%), LOS 49 (14%)
    Non-fermenting gram negative bacilli EOS 161 (30%), LOS 60 (17%)
    E. coli EOS 48 (9%), LOS 40 (11%)
Zakariya et al. [25] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 50 isolates: 42% blood cultures positive
India 2004-2006 <= 30 days   K. pneumoniae 33 (66%)
    Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus 6 (12%)
    Group B Streptococcus 1 (2%)
Muhammad et al. [16] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 130 isolates:  
Pakistan 2009-2010 <28 days   S. aureus 35 (27%)
    E. coli 30 (23%)
    Staphylococcus epidermidis 17 (13%)
    Acinetobacter spp. 17 (13%)
    Klebsiella spp. 13 (10%)
    Streptococcus species only found in early onset sepsis (first week)
    Klebseilla species only found in late onset sepsis (after first week to 28 days)
Darmstadt et al. [27] Neonatal sepsis rural, community recruitment 29 isolates: 6% blood cultures positive
Bangladesh 2004-2006 <28 days   S. aureus 10 (34%)
    S. pneumoniae 3 (10%)
    Group B Streptococcus 1 (3%)
Gyawali et al. [12] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 238 isolates: 15% blood cultures positive
Nepal 2009-2010 first 4 weeks of life   S. aureus 94 (40%)
    Klebsiella spp. 32 (14%)
    Acinetobacter spp. 30 (13%)
    Enterobacter spp. 27 (11%)
    Pseudomonas spp. 21 (9%)
    E. coli 16 (7%)
Shresta et al. [20] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 37 isolates: 32% blood cultures positive
Nepal, 2011-2012 not defined   S. aureus 21 (57%)
    K. pneumoniae 8 (22%)
    P. aeruginosa 5 (13%)
Europe     
Macharashvili et al. [14] Neonatal sepsis urban, hospital recruitment 126 isolates: 67% blood cultures positive
Georgia 2003-2004 8 weeks or younger   K. pneumoniae 36 (29%)
    Enterobacter cloacae 19 (15%)
    S. aureus 15 (12%)
    Group B Streptococcus 6 (5%)
  1. *Percentages calculated when not reported in the article. Pathogens listed in order of relative percentages.
  2. Early onset sepsis (EOS) defined as 0–6 days.
  3. Number of isolates calculated from percentages presented in article.
  4. §Early onset sepsis (EOS) defined as <72 hours, late onset (LOS) defined as >72 hours.