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Table 4 Univariate and multivariable logistic regression on the maternal characteristics associated with HIV infection, Brazil, 2011-2012

From: Prenatal testing and prevalence of HIV infection during pregnancy: data from the “Birth in Brazil” study, a national hospital-based study

Maternal characteristics Prevalence of HIV infection (%) 95% CI Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis1
OR2 95% CI3 p OR2 95% CI3 p
Region of residence         
Southeast 0.34 0.24-0.50 1    1   
North 0.44 0.18-1.09 1.30 0.49-3.47   1.11 0.43-2.90  
Northeast 0.29 0.15-0.57 0.82 0.38-1.75   0.70 0.31-1.58  
South 0.87 0.64-1.18 2.51 1.55-4.09 0.001 2.95 1.78-4.91 <0.001
Midwest 0.31 0.13-0.77 0.91 0.34-2.43   0.92 0.34-2.46  
Maternal age         
12 to 19 years 0.14 0.07-0.28 1    1   
20 to 34 years 0.44 0.34-0.58 3.04 1.47-6.30 0.004 4.45 2.08-9.51 <0.001
35 and over 0.60 0.35-1.04 4.17 1.75-9.98 6.33 2.54-15.80
Schooling level (years)         
11 or more 0.24 0.16-0.35 1    1   
8 to 10 0.48 0.27-0.86 2.12 1.03-4.33   2.03 0.97-4.26  
0 to 7 0.63 0.46-0.87 2.78 1.62-4.78 0.001 2.26 1.28-3.98 0.014
Skin color 4         
White 0.32 0.23-0.46 1    1   
Mixed 0.35 0.25-0.48 1.08 0.67-1.74   1.09 0.67-1.79  
Black 1.09 0.65-1.82 3.38 1.78-6.39 <0.001 2.89 1.57-5.31 0.001
Conjugal situation         
With partner 0.35 0.26-0.47 1    1   
Without partner 0.63 0.44-0.90 1.83 1.18-2.86 0.008 1.87 1.21-2.87 0.005
Syphilis infection 5         
No 0.38 0.29-0.48 1    1   
Yes 2.86 1.20-6.70 7.92 3.05-20.58 <0.001 4.75 2.01-11.21 <0.001
Type of delivery service 6         
Private 0.10 0.04-0.22 1    1   
Mixed 0.33 0.22-0.50 3.40 1.38-8.38   2.11 0.83-5.34  
Public 0.58 0.43-0.79 5.94 2.53-13.96 <0.001 4.08 1.65-10.08 0.003
  1. 1All the analyses were adjusted for the following variables: region of residence, age, schooling level, skin color, conjugal situation, syphilis infection and type of delivery care service (public, mixed or private).
  2. 2OR = odds ratio; 3CI = confidence interval; 4Pregnant women with East Asian or indigenous skin color were excluded from this analysis.
  3. 5Women who presented with one of the following criteria were considered to present syphilis infection: record of a reactive serological test for syphilis on the prenatal card or the hospital medical files; record of a diagnosis of syphilis on the prenatal card or the hospital medical files; or a case of congenital syphilis as an outcome from the present pregnancy.
  4. 6Type of delivery service: public = deliveries only with public funding; private = deliveries only with private funding; mixed = deliveries with either public or private funding.