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Table 2 Clinical correlates of VMB clusters.

From: Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women

Correlates KRST-I n (%) N = 19 KRST-II n (%) N = 136 KRST-pIII-V n (%) N = 53 p value*
Self reported symptoms at screening
Vaginal discharge reported:     
 No   18 (8.9) 135 (66.5) 50 (24.6) 0.05
 Yes   1 (20.0) 1 (20.0) 3 (60.0)  
Clinician observed findings at screening
Cervical mucusab†:     
 No   5 (4.2) 82 (69.5) 31 (26.3) 0.04
 Mild   11 (14.1) 48 (61.5) 19 (24.4)  
 Abundant   2 (28.6) 3 (42.9) 2 (28.6)  
Cervical and/or vaginal epithelial abnormalities:     
 No   15 (8.0) 124 (66.3) 48 (25.7) 0.26
 Yes   4 (19.0) 12 (57.1) 5 (23.8)  
Ectopy:     
 No   11 (9.4) 73 (62.4) 33 (28.2) 0.57
 Yes   8 (8.8) 63 (69.2) 20 (22)  
Any colposcopy finding?:     
 No   17 (9.4) 119 (65.7) 45 (24.9) 0.90
 Yes   2 (7.4) 17 (63.0) 8 (29.6)  
Laboratory-confirmed reproductive and urinary tract infections
HIV serology     
 Negative   19 (100.0) 128 (94.8) 50 (94.3) 0.78
 Positive   0 (0.0) 7 (5.2) 3 (5.7) Trend: 0.44
HSV-2 serology     
 Negative   15 (78.9) 85 (62.5) 33 (62.3) 0.36
 Positive   4 (21.1) 51 (37.5) 20 (37.7) Trend: 034
Bacterial STIc     
 Negative   17 (94.4) 116 (83.3) 41 (77.4) 0.20
 Positive   1 (5.6) 20 (14.7) 12 (22.6) Trend: 0.07
BV by Nugent score     
 0-3   15 (93.8) 93 (76.2) 2 (4.2) <0.01
 4-6   1 (6.2) 15 (12.3) 3 (6.3)  
 7-10   0 (0.0) 14 (11.5) 43 (89.6)  
BV by Amsel criteria     
 Negative   18 (94.7) 128 (94.1) 37 (69.8) <0.01
 Positive   1 (5.3) 8 (5.9) 16 (30.2)  
Candidiasis on wet mountd     
 Negative   16 (84.2) 113 (83.1) 50 (94.3) 0.11
 Positive   3 (15.8) 23 (16.9) 3 (5.7) Trend: 0.09
Urinary tract infection by diptstick test     
 Negative   4 (100.0) 4 (44.4) 132 (76.3) 0.06
 Positive   0 (0.0) 5 (55.6) 41 (23.7)  
Treatment in the 14 days prior to enrollment
Any systemic antibioticsd:     
 No   18 (10.5) 115 (66.9) 39 (22.7) 0.10
 Yes   1 (2.8) 21 (58.3) 14 (38.9)  
Any vaginal antibiotics: No     
 No   19 (9.2) 136 (66) 51 (24.8) 0.12
 Yes   0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (100)  
Bacterial vaginosis requiring treatment:     
 No   19 (9.7) 130 (66.3) 47 (24.0) 0.16
 Yes   0 (0) 6 (50.0) 6 (50.0)  
Candidiasis requiring treatmente:     
 No   17 (9.5) 116 (64.8) 46 (25.7) 0.10
 Yes   0 (0) 10 (100) 0 (0)  
  1. Abbreviations:KRST Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa, and Tanzania.
  2. *Fisher’s exact test, Trend = Chi-squared test for trend.
  3. a4/208 values missing.
  4. bNo association (p = 0.95) was found when the data were analyzed with a binary outcome (i.e. clusters KRST-I and KRST-II combined vs. cluster KRST-pIII-V).
  5. cBacterial STIs includes syphilis (by serology), chlamydia and gonorrhea (by PCR), and trichomoniasis (by InPouch culture test).
  6. dStronger evidence of association was observed when data were analyzed with a binary outcome (i.e. clusters KRST-I and II combined vs. cluster KRST-pIII-V) (p = 0.06) and when pregnant women and Tanzanian women (phase in the menstrual cycle at the time of sampling not known) were excluded (p = 0.04).
  7. e19/208 values missing.
  8. Women who had mild/moderate cervical mucus (OR = 0.27; 95% CI 0.09, 0.81) and women who had abundant cervical mucus (OR = 0.09; 95% CI 0.01, 0.68) were more likely to belong to cluster KRST-II vs. KRST-I compared to women with no cervical mucus. Women who had mild cervical mucus compared to no cervical mucus were less likely to belong to cluster KRST-pIII-V vs. KRST-I (OR = 0.28; 95% CI 0.08, 0.93), while there was no statistically significant difference between having abundant cervical mucus and no cervical mucus.