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Table 1 Sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive history correlates of VMB clusters

From: Correlates of the molecular vaginal microbiota composition of African women

Correlates KRST-I n (%) N = 19 KRST-II n (%) N = 136 KRST-pIII-V n (%) N = 53 p value*
Sociodemographic characteristics at screening     
Recruitment group:     
  Adult women, KE 9 (47.4) 60 (44.1) 21 (39.6) 0.69
  Adolescent women, KE 1 (5.3) 14 (10.3) 4 (7.5)  
  Pregnant women, KE 3 (15.8) 9 (6.6) 2 (3.8)  
  Adult women, RSA 2 (10.5) 22 (16.2) 7 (13.2)  
  IVP users, RSA + TZ 2 (10.5) 10 (7.4) 8 (15.1)  
  HIV-positive and high risk women, RW 2 (10.5) 21 (15.4) 11 (20.8)  
Country:     
  Kenya 13 (68.4) 83 (61.0) 27 (50.9) 0.69
  RSA 2 (10.5) 22 (16.2) 8 (15.1)  
  Rwanda 2 (10.5) 21 (15.4) 11 (20.8)  
  Tanzania 2 (10.5) 10 (7.4) 7 (13.2)  
Age (categorical):     
  16 -17 years 1 (5.3) 14 (10.3) 4 (7.5) 0.18
  18 -24 years 3 (15.8) 50 (36.8) 20 (37.7)  
  25 -29 years 6 (31.6) 48 (35.3) 17 (32.1)  
  30 -35 years 9 (47.4) 24 (17.6) 12 (22.6)  
Socio-economic status (composite)a:     
  Low 6 (31.6) 42 (30.9) 15 (28.3) 0.58
  Medium 5 (26.3) 44 (32.4) 23 (43.4)  
  High 8 (42.1) 50 (36.8) 15 (28.3)  
Sexual behavior     
Sexual risk taking (composite)b:     
  Low 7 (36.8) 55 (40.4) 22 (41.5) 0.63
  Medium 6 (31.6) 42 (30.9) 11 (20.8)  
  High 6 (31.6) 39 (28.7) 20 (37.7)  
Self-acknowledged sex-worker:     
  No 16 (84.2) 115 (84.6) 43 (81.1) 0.88
  Yes 3 (15.8) 21 (15.4) 10 (18.9)  
Number of lifetime sexual partnersc:     
  One 7 (38.9) 29 (21.6) 10 (20.8) 0.55
  Two to three 7 (38.9) 55 (41) 20 (41.7)  
  More than three 4 (22.2) 50 (37.3) 18 (37.5)  
Number of sexual partners last 3 monthsd:     
  Zero 3 (15.8) 11 (8.2) 1 (1.9) 0.24
  One 12 (63.2) 101 (75.4) 42 (79.2)  
  > One 4 (21.1) 22 (16.4) 10 (18.9)  
Vaginal sex previous morning/eveninge:     
  No 18 (94.7) 97 (71.9) 40 (75.5) 0.09
  Yes 1 (5.3) 38 (28.1) 13 (24.5)  
Frequency of sex last 3 monthsf:     
  ≤10 times 7 (50.0) 45 (38.8) 20 (42.6) 0.21
  11 - 30 times 6 (42.9) 36 (31.0) 19 (40.4)  
  >30 times 1 (7.1) 35 (30.2) 8 (17.0)  
Condom use last sexual contactf:     
  No 13 (81.2) 70 (60.3) 32 (68.1) 0.24
  Yes 3 (18.8) 46 (39.7) 15 (31.9)  
Freq of unprotected sex (last 3 months)g:     
  Never 0 (0.0) 36 (60.0) 12 (63.2) 0.06
  <10 times 2 (40.0) 13 (21.7) 4 (21.1)  
  ≥10 times 3 (60.0) 11 (18.3) 3 (15.8)  
Put something in vagina to dry/tighten vagina before sex (enrollment)h    
  No 17 (100.0) 125 (99.2) 46 (100.0) 1.00
  Yes 0 (0.0) 1 (0.8) 0 (0.0) 1.00
Clean vagina after sex (enrollment):     
  No 7 (36.8) 67 (49.3) 28 (52.8) 0.50
  Yes 12 (63.2) 69 (50.7) 25 (47.2)  
Vaginal practice for washing:     
  No 7 (36.8) 51 (37.5) 21 (39.6) 0.88
  Yes, but not the evening before visit 3 (15.8) 14 (10.3) 7 (13.2)  
  Yes, including evening before visit 9 (47.4) 71 (52.2) 25 (47.2)  
Products used to wash/clean/dry vagina     
  No product 6 (31.6) 51 (37.5) 20 (37.7) 0.48
  Water or fingers only 6 (31.6) 39 (28.7) 17 (32.1)  
  Water + soap 3 (15.8) 35 (25.7) 14 (26.4)  
  Cloth 4 (21.1) 11 (8.1) 2 (3.8)  
Reproductive history at screening     
Median gravidity (IQR) 2 (1, 3) 2 (1, 3) 2 (1, 3) 0.78
Median parity (IQR) 2 (1, 2.5) 1.5 (0, 2) 1 (0, 2) 0.76
Currently pregnant     
  No 16 (84.2) 127 (93.4) 51 (96.2) 0.19
  Yes 3 (15.8) 9 (6.6) 2 (3.8)  
Breast feeding:     
  No 16 (84.2) 119 (87.5) 49 (92.5) 0.48
  Yes 3 (15.8) 17 (12.5) 4 (7.5)  
Median months since last deliveryi† (IQR) 41 (28, 54) 33 (19, 48) 56 (28, 82) 0.01
Current contraceptive use:     
  None, pregnant 3 (15.8) 9 (6.6) 2 (3.8) 0.58
  None, not pregnant 3 (15.8) 30 (22.1) 13 (24.5)  
  Combined oral contraceptives 3 (15.8) 19 (14.0) 9 (17.0)  
  Progestin-only injectables 5 (26.3) 44 (32.4) 11 (20.8)  
  Condoms + IUD 5 (26.3) 34 (25.0) 18 (34.0)  
  1. Abbreviations:IQR inter quartile range, IUD intra uterine device, IVP intravaginal practice, KE Kenya, KRST Kenya, Rwanda, South Africa and Tanzania, RSA Republic of South Africa, RW Rwanda, TZ Tanzania.
  2. *Kruskal-Wallis test for continuous data and Fisher’s exact test for categorical data.
  3. aThe composite score ‘socio-economic-status’ was calculated as follows: income: no income (=1), up to the median (=2), median to 75th percentile (=3), and ≥ 75th percentile (=4); housing: informal dwelling (=1), room inside house or flat (=2), rented house or flat (=3), bonded/mortgaged house or flat (=4); and toilet: no facility/bush/field/yraditional pit toilet (=1), ventilated improved pit latrine (=2), and flush toilet (=3). The total score was categorized in tertiles as low, medium, high.
  4. bThe composite variable for sexual risk taking was constructed as follows: High risk: sex worker OR at least three sex partners last year OR had at least one sex partner (in the last 3 months) with HIV OR age first sex less than 15 yrs; Medium risk: at least two sex partners last year OR had at least one sex partner (in the last 3 months) who had multiple partners; Low risk: one or no sex partners in last year AND did not have any sex partner (in the last 3 months) with multiple partners AND age first sex at least 15 years.
  5. c8/208 values missing.
  6. d2/208 values missing.
  7. e1/208 values missing.
  8. f30/208 values missing.
  9. g124/208 values missing.
  10. h19/208 values missing.
  11. i71/208 values missing.
  12. For every one month increase in the time since last delivery, women were less likely to be assigned to cluster KRST-II than cluster KRST-pIII-V (OR = 0.98; 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Time since last delivery was not statistically significantly different between clusters KRST-I and KRST-II, and between clusters KRST-I and KRST-pIII-V.