Skip to main content

Table 4 Naso/oropharyngeal swab test results from cases and controls

From: Severe acute respiratory infection in children in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya, 2007–2011

Pathogen Cases, n (%) N = 731 Controls, n (%) N = 115 Adjusted OR** (95% CI)
Influenza A 79 (10.8%) 5 (4.3%) 2.57 (1.01-6.52)
Influenza B 19 (2.6%) 1 (0.9%) 3.06 (0.41-23.17)
Influenza A or B 97 (13.3%) 6 (5.2%) 2.71 (1.15-6.39)
Respiratory syncytial virus 155 (21.2%) 3 (2.6%) 10.15 (3.16-32.58)
Adenovirus 221 (30.2%) 27 (23.5%) 1.51 (0.94-2.42)
Parainfluenza virus 1 26 (3.6%) 1 (0.9%) 4.12 (0.55-30.69)
Parainfluenza virus 2 24 (3.3%) 5 (4.3%) 0.71 (0.26-1.9)
Parainfluenza virus 3 72 (9.8%) 5 (4.3%) 2.31 (0.91-5.85)
Any parainfluenza 115 (15.7%) 10 (8.7%) 1.87 (0.95-3.69)
Human metapneumovirus 91 (12.4%) 7 (6.1%) 2.12 (0.96-4.72)
Atypical bacteria 0 (0%) 0 (0.0%) -
Rhinovirus/Enterovirus * 97 (47.5%) 24 (50.0%) 0.89 (0.46-1.71)
Parechovirus * 4 (1.9%) 1 (2.1%) 0.73 (0.08-6.85)
Positive > =1 virus 533 (72.9%) 61 (53%) 2.27 (1.51-3.42)
Positive >2 viruses 207 (28.3%) 17 (14.8%) 2.36 (1.36-4.11)
  1. *Rhino/enterovirus, parechovirus and atypical bacteria were only tested among a subset of patients. 204 swabs cases were tested among cases <5 years old; 48 controls were tested.
  2. **adjusted for age group (0–11, 12–23, 24–59 months) and season during which the swab was taken.
  3. January 1, 2009, − Feb 28 2011 Kibera, Nairobi Kenya.