Skip to main content

Table 3 Etiologies of SARI in children < 5 years old, by age group, in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya

From: Severe acute respiratory infection in children in a densely populated urban slum in Kenya, 2007–2011

  <1 year n (%) 12-23 months n (%) 24-59 months n (%) All cases, n (%)
Total patients seen 12445 11838 21385 45668
SARI cases 980 (7.9%) 718 (6.1%) 894 (4.2%) 2592 (5.7%)
Rate of SARI (per 100 PYO) 30.4 16.7 6.7 12.4
CFRa for SARI cases 13 (1.3%) 2 (0.3%) 3 (0.3%) 18 (0.7%)
Blood cultures (BC) done 270 (27.6%) 243 (33.8%) 349 (39.0%) 862 (33.3%)
BCs without contaminant 259 (26.4%) 236 (32.9%) 341 (38.1%) 836 (32.3%)
S. pneumoniae b 4 (1.5%) 3 (1.3%) 1 (0.3%) 8 (1%)
H. influenzae b 0 0 0 0
S. aureus b 10 (3.9%) 1 (0.4%) 3 (0.9%) 14 (1.7%)
Klebsiella pneumoniae b 0 0 0 0
Non-typhi Salmonellab 7 (2.7%) 3 (1.3%) 3 (0.9%) 13 (1.6%)
Salmonella Typhi 1 (0.4%) 2 (0.8%) 2 (0.6%) 5 (0.6%)
Other pathogenic bacteriab,c 0 0 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.1%)
Naso/oropharyngeal swabs collected 285 (29.1%) 241 (33.6%) 289 (32.3%) 815 (31.4%)
Influenza A 27 (9.4%) 26 (10.8%) 39 (13.5%) 92 (11.3%)
Influenza B 4 (1.4%) 6 (2.5%) 11 (3.8%) 21 (2.6%)
Influenza A or B 31 (10.9%) 31 (12.9%) 50 (17.1%) 112 (13.7%)
Respiratory syncytial virus 74 (25.9%) 49 (20.3%) 46 (15.8%) 169 (20.7%)
Adenovirus 57 (20%) 76 (31.5%) 108 (36.9%) 241 (29.5%)
Parainfluenza virus 1 10 (3.5%) 10 (4.1%) 8 (2.7%) 28 (3.4%)
Parainfluenza virus 2 7 (2.5%) 7 (2.9%) 11 (3.8%) 25 (3.1%)
Parainfluenza virus 3 31 (10.9%) 27 (11.2%) 19 (6.5%) 77 (9.4%)
Any Parainfluenza 46 (16.1%) 43 (17.8%) 34 (11.6%) 123 (15.0%)
Human metapneumovirus 39 (13.7%) 23 (9.5%) 35 (11.9%) 97 (11.9%)
Rhinovirus/Enterovirusd 32/76 (42%) 36/73 (49%) 29/55 (53%) 97/204 (47.5%)
Parechovirusd 3/76 (4%) 0 1/55 (1.8%) 4 (2.0%)
Atypical bacteriae 0 0 0 0
Positive > =1 virus 204 (71.6%) 182 (75.5%) 195 (66.8%) 581 (71.0%)
Positive > =2 virus 71 (24.9%) 67 (27.8%) 83 (28.4%) 221 (27.0%)
  1. All data presented as number and percentage in parentheses rounded to the nearest integer.
  2. aCase-fatality ratios (CFR) are defined as death in the 30 days following clinic visit for SARI episode.
  3. bDenominator = uncontaminated blood cultures from 836 patients. Blood culture results discarded if they contained coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Bacillus species, or Corynebacteria.
  4. cOther pathogenic bacterium was Escherichia coli.
  5. dRhino/enterovirus, parechovirus, and atypical bacteria were only tested for from January 1, 2009 – February 28, 2010; 204 swabs were tested among persons <5 years old (76 specimens in <1 year olds, 73 on 12–23 month olds and 55 in 24–59 month olds).
  6. epresence of atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Legionella species) was assessed by qPCR in 76 np/op swabs.
  7. March 1, 2007-February 28, 2011.