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Table 5 Factors associated with influenza infection and tuberculosis-influenza co-infection compared with tuberculosis infection only among patients admitted with severe respiratory illness presenting with symptoms duration ≥7 days and tested for tuberculosis and influenza at four sites in South Africa, June 2010- December 2011

From: Influenza virus infection is associated with increased risk of death amongst patients hospitalized with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa, 2010–2011

Variables   Laboratory confirmed tuberculosis Referencea Laboratory confirmed influenza Laboratory confirmed tuberculosis-influenza co-infection
n/N (%) ARRRb P-value n/N (%) ARRRb P-value
Hospital duration <7 150/244 (61) 50/80 (62.5) Reference   6/9 (67) Reference  
≥7 days 94/244 (39) 30/80 (37.7) 0.99 (0.6-1.7) 0.991 3/9 (33) 0.6 (0.1-2.7) 0.520
HIV status Negative 34/233 (83) 25/78 (32) Reference   1/9 (11) Reference  
  Positive 199/233 (17) 53/78 (68) 0.4 (0.2-0.7) 0.002 8/9 (89) 2.2 (0.2-20.5) 0.486
Oxygen therapy No 203/246 (83) 50/81 (62) Reference   6/9 (67) Reference  
Yes 43/246 (17) 31/81 (38) 3.0 (1.7-5.5) <0.001 3/9 (33) 2.1 (0.5-9.3) 0.315
Died No 224/245 (91) 74/80 (92.5) Reference   6/9 (67) Reference  
  Yes 21/245 (9) 6/80 (7.5) 0.54 (0.2-1.5) 0.875 3/9 (33) 5.48 (1.2-25.4) 0.029
  1. HIV – human immunodeficiency virus.
  2. aTuberculosis only group used as reference for multinomial model analysis (i.e. comparing influenza only to tuberculosis only and tuberculosis–influenza co-infection to tuberculosis only group).
  3. bAdjusted relative risk ratio (ARRR) at multivariable analysis.