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Table 4 Factors associated with influenza infection and tuberculosis-influenza co-infection compared with tuberculosis infection only among patients presenting with symptoms duration <7 days admitted with severe respiratory illness and tested for tuberculosis and influenza at four sites in South Africa, June 2010-2011

From: Influenza virus infection is associated with increased risk of death amongst patients hospitalized with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa, 2010–2011

Variables   Laboratory confirmed tuberculosis Referencea Laboratory confirmed influenza Laboratory confirmed tuberculosis-influenza co-infection
n/N (%) ARRRb P-value n/N (%) ARRRb P-value
Duration of symptoms <7 100/165 (61) 148/194 (76) Reference   6/9 (67) Reference  
≥7 days 65/165 (39) 46/194 (24) 0.4 (0.3-0.7) 0.001 3/9 (33) 0.5 (0.2-1.5) 0.240
HIV status Negative 46/148 (31) 74/179 (41) Reference   5/22 (23) Reference  
  Positive 102/148 (69) 105/ 179 (59) 0.8 (0.5-1.2) 0.280 17/22 (77) 1.6 (0.5-4.7) 0.404
Oxygen therapy No 101/166 (61) 108/194 (56) Reference   17/24 (71) Reference  
Yes 65/166 (39) 86/194 (44) 1.4 (0.9-2.3) 0.141 7/24 (29) 0.7 (0.3-2.0) 0.560
Died No 157/166 (95) 191/194 (98) 0.5(0.2-1.5)   24/24 (96) Reference  
  Yes 9/166 (5) 3/194 (2) 0.2 (0.04-1.2) 0.081 1/24 (4) 0.98 (0.1-8.6) 0.986
  1. HIV – human immunodeficiency virus.
  2. aTuberculosis only group used as reference for multinomial model analysis (i.e. comparing influenza only to tuberculosis only and tuberculosis–influenza co-infection to tuberculosis only group).
  3. bAdjusted relative risk ratio (ARRR) at multivariable analysis.