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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of patients admitted with severe respiratory illness (acute and chronic), by tuberculosis testing status at four sites in South Africa, June 2010- December 2011

From: Influenza virus infection is associated with increased risk of death amongst patients hospitalized with confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis in South Africa, 2010–2011

Characteristic   Tested for tuberculosis n/N (%) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P value Adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) P value
Age group (years) 0-4 571/3291 (17) Reference   Reference  
  5-24 270 /587 (46) 4.05 (3.4-4.9) <0.001 3.3 (2.6-4.1) <0.001
  25-44 1378/2473 (56) 5.99 (5.3-6.8) <0.001 3.5 (3.0-4.2) <0.001
  45-64 611/1197 (51) 4.96 (4.3-5.7) <0.001 3.2 (2.7-3.8) <0.001
  ≥65 129/315 (39) 3.30 (2.6-4.2) <0.001 2.6 (2.0-3.4) <0.001
Sex Female 1664/4077 (41) Reference    
  Male 1295/3786 (34) 0.8 (0.7-0.8) <0.001   
Site Chris Hani Baragwanath 1618/4437 (36) Reference   Reference  
  Mapulaneng & Matikwana 144/749 (19) 0.4 (0.3-0.5) <0.001 0.4 (0.3-0.5) <0.001
  Edendale 385/1156 (33) 0.9 (0.8-0.99) 0.046 0.7 (0.6-0.8) <0.001
  Klerksdorp/Tshepong 812/1521 (53) 1.99 (1.8-2.2) <0.001 1.1 (0.95-1.3) 0.152
Influenza Negative 2650/7098 (37) Reference    
  Positive 309/765 (40) 1.1 (0.9-1.3) 0.097   
HIV status Negative 862/3410 (25) Reference   Reference  
  Positive 1877/3523 (53) 3.4 (3.0-3.7) <0.001 1.5 (1.3-1.7) <0.001
Underlying medical condition* No 2652/7041 (38) Reference    
Yes 307/821 (37) 0.98 (0.85-1.14) 0.879   
Duration of symptoms prior to admission (days) <7 1884/5957(32) Reference   Reference  
≥7 1012/1765 (57) 2.9 (2.6-3.2) <0.001 1.3 (1.1-1.5) 0.003
Concurrent invasive bacterial infection** No 653/1832 (36) Reference    
Yes 24/46(52) 1.96 (1.1- 3.5) 0.023   
Pneumococcal No 2435/6284 (39) Reference    
Infection*** Yes 214/434 (49) 1.5 (1.3-1.9) <0.001   
Receiving tuberculosis treatment at time of admission No 158/292 (54) Reference <0.001   
Yes 49/179 (27) 0.3 (0.2-0.5)    
Started on treatment for tuberculosis No 2301/6716 (34) Reference   Reference  
Yes 647/1108 (58) 2.7 (2.4-3.1) <0.001 1.2 (1.0-1.4) 0.036
Antibiotics prescribed No 77/332 (23) Reference   Reference  
Yes 2877/7515 (38) 2.1 (1.6-2.7) <0.001 1.9 (1.4-2.5) <0.001
Oxygen therapy No 1869/5145 (36) Reference    
  Yes 1086/2698 (40) 1.2 (1.1-1.3) 0.001 1.2 (1.0-1.3) 0.018
ICU admission No 2936/7772 (38) Reference    
  Yes 15/65 (23) 0.5 (0.3-0.9) 0.017   
Duration of hospitalisation (days) ≤7 1913/5666 (34) Reference   Reference  
>7 1029/2143 (48) 2.9 (2.6-3.2) <0.001 1.2 (1.1-1.4) 0.002
Died No 2757/7321 (38) Reference Reference   
  Yes 195/509 (38) 1.02 (0.9-1.2) 0.769   
  1. HIV – human immunodeficiency virus; ICU– intensive care unit, TB-Tuberculosis.
  2. *Underlying conditions included any of the following: Asthma, other chronic lung disease, chronic heart disease (valvular heart disease, coronary artery disease, or heart failure excluding hypertension), liver disease (cirrhosis or liver failure), renal disease (nephrotic syndrome, chronic renal failure), diabetes mellitus, immunocompromising conditions excluding HIV infection (organ transplant, immunosuppressive therapy, immunoglobulin deficiency, malignancy), neurological disease (cerebrovascular accident, spinal cord injury, seizures, neuromuscular conditions) or pregnancy. Comorbidities were considered absent in cases for which the medical records stated that the patient had no underlying medical condition or when there was no direct reference to that condition.
  3. **Concurrent invasive bacterial infections were defined as a bacterial pathogen isolated from blood, cerebrospinal fluid or another sterile site from a specimen taken within 48 hours of hospitalisation; organisms viewed as likely contaminants were excluded.
  4. ***Pneumococcal co-infection (lyt A PCR positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae on blood specimen).
  5. Other variables evaluated but not presented in the table because they were not significant on univariate analysis were, Oseltamivir treatment prescribed and smoking and alcohol intake for patients ≥12 years.