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Table 2 Characteristics of included studies

From: A meta-analysis of ventriculostomy-associated cerebrospinal fluid infections

Study Year Country Study Type n (patients) n (evd’s) Length of treatment (mean no. days) Age (mean) Males (%) Trauma (%) Cerebrovascular (%) Other indications (%) Antibiotic-impregnated catheters (%) Periprocedural a antibiotics (%) Prophylactic b antibiotics (%) Culture frequency Infection definition
Alleyne [31] 2000 USA Retrospective 308 - 9.3 46.6 50.6 27.9 50.3 21.8 0 100 67.9 twice weekly culture
Arabi [36] 2005 Saudi Arabia Retrospective 84 99 7 34 78.6 63.1 21.4 15.5 - 59.6 - when indicated culture or wccc + glucose + clinical signs
Bota [35] 2005 Belgium Retrospective 638 - 9.5 41.3 56.9 23 62.2 14.7 0 100 - daily culture + csfd + clinical
Camacho [8] 2011 Brazil Prospective 119 130 7.1 44.4 48.7 26.9 53.8 19.3 0 73.1 - when indicated unclear
Chi [24] 2009 Taiwan Retrospective 155 197 18.8 58.1 63.2 - - - - 100 - when indicated culture
Dasic [10] 2006 UK Retrospective 95 113 10.7 54.7 62.1 - - - 0 - - unclear culture
Fichtner [28] 2010 Germany Retrospective 164 - 10 53.5 50 - 56.1 - 0 67.7 0 thrice weekly culture
Hader [17] 2000 Canada Retrospective 157 160 5.6 8 0 40.8 7.6 51.6 0 100 43 daily culture + gram stain or multiple cultures
Hoefnagel [2] 2008 Netherlands Retrospective 228 - 8.1 58 49.6 3.5 78.1 18.4 0 35.5 - thrice weekly culture
Holloway [25] 1996 USA Retrospective 584 866 7.5 29.9 77.2 100 0 0 - - - when indicated culture or wcc or csf glucose
Khalil [9] 2005 UK Retrospective . 24 12.3 - - - - - - - - unclear culture
Kim [34] 2012 USA Retrospective 343 - 12.4 53.7 42 - 71 - 0 100 0 when indicated culture
Kitchen [6] 2011 UK Retrospective 133 195 7.1 55 35.3 - - - 0 - - unclear culture
Lemcke [20] 2012 Germany Retrospective 95 95 13.7 53.6 53.7 10.5 83.2 6.3 32.6 100 0 tenth daily culture
Leverstein Van-Dall [21] 2010 Netherlands Retrospective + Prospective . 363 9.2 - - - - - - - - unclear cdc definition
Lo [18] 2007 Australia Retrospective 199 269 8.2 41 64 74 26 0 0 - - thrice weekly cdc definition
Lundberg [16] 2000 Sweden Prospective 157 157 7.4 - - 24.8 51 24.2 0 - - when indicated or at removal culture
Lwin [27] 2012 Singapore Retrospective + Prospective 234 - 7.8 - 65 - - - 0 - - when indicated culture
Lyke [13] 2001 USA Retrospective 157 196 5.3 54.5 42.7 0 0 100   100 100 when indicated culture + wcc or glucose for low virulence organisms
Mahe [7] 1995 France Retrospective 53 64 14.6 47.3 - - - - - - - daily culture or wcc
McLaughlin [19] 2012 USA Retrospective 75 97 13.7 59 34.7 0 100 0 100 - - when indicated cdc definition
Moon [12] 2007 Korea Retrospective 112 174 8.3 48.5 63.4 63.4 26.8 9.8 - 100 100 daily culture + fever
Park [29] 2004 USA Retrospective 595 770 8.6 51.3 51.3 12.6 66.7 20.7 - 100 100 when indicated culture
Rafiq [15] 2011 Pakistan Retrospective 76 - 11.4 37.9 53.9 - - - 0 100 100 when indicated culture
Rivero-Garvia [26] 2011 Spain Retrospective 534 648 10.2 - - - - - 42.8 - - when indicated unclear
Roitberg [30] 2001 USA Retrospective 103 - 10.7 - 39.8 2.9 85.4 11.7 - - - daily clinical + wcc
Scheithauer [23] 2009 Germany Prospective 225 - 11.2 - - - - - 0 0 0 when indicated cdc definition
Scheithauer [22] 2010 Germany Prospective 158 - 14.3 - - - - - 0 0 0 thrice weekly cdc definition
Schodel [32] 2012 Germany Retrospective 166 - 17.1 58.7 44 9 86.1 4.8 0 100 0 unclear culture + clinical signs
Schultz [11] 1993 USA Prospective 78 94 11.9 48.8 53.8 37.2 - - 0 - 94.9 unclear culture
Sloffer [33] 2005 USA Retrospective 100 113 11.4 55.6 39 8 72 20 100 100 - when indicated culture
Smigoc [5] 2012 Slovenia Retrospective 48 - 9.8 - - - 27.1 - - - - unclear culture or clinical signs
Smith [4] 1976 USA Retrospective 56 65 4 - - - - - 0 95.4 95.4 unclear culture
Williams [14] 2011 Australia Retrospective + Prospective 382 - 5.4 46.1 60.2 32.2 38 29.8   - - daily retro, third daily pros culture
Wyler [3] 1972 USA Retrospective 70 102 5 7.2 - 0 4.3 95.7 0 - 62.9 insertion, withdrawal and when indicated culture
  1. aPeriprocedural = antibiotic administered immediately prior to procedure.
  2. bProphylactic = antibiotic administered for 24 hours or more after the procedure.
  3. cwcc = white cell count.
  4. dcsf = cerebrospinal fluid.