Skip to main content

Table 3 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: Salmonella blood stream infections in a tertiary care setting in Ghana

Variables Number Salmonella bactereamia Salmonella isolates in BSI b
   Typhoidal (66) Non-typhoidal (115) Odds ratio (95% CI a) P-value MDRs (n = 81) Non-MDRs (n = 100) Odds ratio (95% CI) P-value
Male gender 98 34 64 0.85 (0.46-1.55) 0.590 50 48 1.74 (0.96-1.17) 0.065
Age (±SD)c   10.3 ± 2.5 9.0 ± 3.79 1.02 (0.82-1.76) 0.051 9.1 ± 1.8 9.3 ± 2.1 0.93 (0.81-1.65) 0.295
Aged          
0-1 49 11 38 0.39 (0.18-0.84) 0.014 23 26 1.19 (0.61-2.31) 0.610
1-5 44 17 27 1.11 (0.55-2.25) 0.741 19 25 0.96 (0.48-1.92) 0.920
6-13 58 28 30 2.07 (1.08-3.96) 0.026 31 27 1.80 (0.95-3.41) 0.070
>13 23 8 15 0.90 (0.36-2.26) 0.823 7 16 0.51 (0.20-1.32) 0.162
Month of infectione          
Jan-Mar 27 10 17 1.02 (0.44-2.40) 1.0 21 6 5.48 (2.09-14.36) 0.001
April-June 62 21 41 0.84 (0.44-1.60) 0.603 31 31 1.38 (0.74-2.55) 0.305
July-sept 47 17 30 0.98 (0.49-1.96) 1.0 21 26 0.99 (0.51-1.94) 1.0
Oct-Dec 45 18 27 1.22 (0.61-2.44) 0.571 13 32 0.41 (0.19-0.84) 0.013
Year of infection          
2010 37 23 14 3.85 (1.82-8.20) 0.001 21 6 5.48 (209–14.36) 0.001
2011 54 13 41 0.44 (0.22-0.91) 0.02 31 23 2.07 (1.08-3.96) 0.025
2012 62 26 36 1.42 (0.75-2.68) 0.269 22 40 0.55 (0.29-1.05) 0.070
2013 28 13 15 1.63 (0.72-3.69) 0.233 7 21 0.35 (0.14-0.88) 0.02
Sickle cell diseasef 27 6 21 0.45 (0.17-1.19) 0.104 16 11 1.51 (0.64-3.56) 0.342
Physicians’ diagnosisf          
Sepsis 62 27 35 1.92 (0.94-3.96) 0.072 23 39 0.33 (0.17-0.68) 0.002
Enteric fever 14 9 5 3.79 (1.18-12.09) *0.022 11 3 3.99 (1.05-15.05) 0.029
PUO 20 5 15 0.55 (0.18-1.63) 0.281 7 13 0.46 (0.17-1.23) 0.116
BEMP 13 3 10 0.51 (0.12-1.95) *0.378 5 8 0.56 (0.17-1.83) 0.33
Undiagnosed 71 21 50 0.56 (0.27-1.16) 0.118 35 36 0.85 (0.42-1.69) 0.646
Patient locationg          
Child health 85 29 56 1.23 (0.56-2.71) 0.596 42 43 1.06 (0.52-2.22) 0.862
Medical 14 7 7 2.28 (0.75-7.00) *0.225 4 10 0.39 (0.11-1.28) 0.108
NICU 2 0 2 - - 0 2 - -
Surgical 2 0 2 - - 1 1 - -
PML 25 5 20 0.44 (0.15-1.26) 0.122 13 12 1.17 (0.49-2.80) 0.729
KBTH patientsh 102 36 66 0.76 (0.41-1.45) 0.416 47 55 0.59 (0.24-1.38) 0.223
Crx resistant salmonellaei 32 11 21 0.89 (0.40-1.99) 0.79 27 5 8.35 (3.02-23.05) 0.001
Typhoidal salmonella 66 - - - - 22 44 0.47 (0.25-0.89) 0.02
  1. aCI, confidence interval; bBSI, blood stream infections; MDR, multidrg resistant strains; cSD, standard deviation; dRecorded for 64 TS and 110 NTS, and 75 MDR and 96 non-MDRs; eJan-Mar, January to March; Sep,september; Oct-Dec, October to December; fRecorded for 47 TS and 85 NTS, and 67 MDRs and 64 non-MDRs; PUO, pyrexia of unknown origin; BEMP, bone infections, endocarditis, meningitis, pneumonia; gRecorded for 42 TS and 87 NTS, and 63 MDRs and 66 non-MDRs; NICU, neonatal intensive care unit; PML, Princess-Marie Louis Children hospital; hKBTH, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, recorded for 42 TS and 87 NTS, and 63 MDRs and 66 non-MDRs; iCrx, cefuroxime, tested for 63 TS and 104 NTS, and 80 MDRs and 87 non-MDRs.
  2. *P-vaue with Fisher’s exact test.