Effect of complex 1 and 2 on TNF-α production from U1 cells. Cell free supernatant from U1 cells treated with 1 and 2 was analysed using the CBA kit technology. TNF-α levels were increased by 9 and 3 fold for 1 and 2 respectively. The observed visual differences between treated and untreated cells was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) but could be contributing to the viral reactivation mechanism observed. PMA was used as a positive control and significantly stimulated TNF-α (p = 0.004). The data is plotted on a log scale, n = 3.