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Table 1 Patient characteristics for 4,162 TB episodes occurring between 1995 and 2008

From: Timing, rates, and causes of death in a large South African tuberculosis programme

   First episode n (%) Retreatment episode n (%)
TOTAL   3170 992
Age at diagnosis <35 years 438 (14) 86 (9)
35-44 years 1208 (38) 364 (37)
45-54 years 1261 (40) 470 (47)
>54 years 263 (8) 72 (7)
Treatment sequence First episode 3170 (100)  
Second episode   833 (84)
Third episode   140 (14)
Fourth or fifth episode   19 (2)
Time in employment at diagnosis <1 year 237 (7) 27 (3)
1- < 5 years 526 (17) 116 (12)
5- < 10 years 461 (15) 149 (15)
10+ years 1946 (61) 700 (71)
Year diagnosed 1995-1998 509 (16) 234 (24)
1999-2002 848 (27) 330 (33)
2003-2005 908 (29) 290 (29)
2006-2008 905 (29) 138 (14)
HIV/ART status Negative/unknown 1124 (36) 217 (22)
Positive: ART 375 (12) 277 (28)
Positive: no ART 1671 (53) 498 (50)
TB site Pulmonary 1706 (54) 687 (69)
Extra-pulmonary1 1276 (40) 259 (26)
No data 188 (6) 46 (5)
Certainty of diagnosis2 Confirmed 740 (23) 269 (27)
Probable 760 (24) 314 (32)
Possible 856 (27) 264 (27)
No data 814 (26) 145 (15)
Outcome Cured/Completed 2362 (75) 589 (59)
Failed 54 (2) 25 (3)
Did not complete 170 (5) 41 (4)
Transferred 276 (9) 136 (14)
Died 308 (10) 201 (20)
Autopsy data available Alive 2862 (90) 791 (80)
Died – Cardiorespiratory autopsy 180 (6) 113 (11)
Died – No autopsy 128 (4) 88 (9)
  1. 1Extra-pulmonary cases were in the following sites: 59 lymph node, 489 pleural, 21 meningitis, 65 bone/joint, 124 other organs, 77 miliary.
  2. 2TB cases were classified as “confirmed” if at least one sputum culture was positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, “probable” if at least one sputum smear was positive for acid-fast bacilli, and “possible” if there was at least one negative sputum culture and/or sputum smear. The remaining cases lacked microbiological data and were treated as a separate “no data” category.