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Table 3 Characteristics of the population according to vitamin D status

From: Vitamin D and tuberculosis: a multicenter study in children

 

Deficient n = 159

Insufficient n = 308

Sufficient n = 529

Total n = 996

P

TB status, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- Controls

113 (71.1%)

241 (78.2%)

460 (87%)

814 (81.7%)

 

- Latent TB

28 (17.6%)

52 (16.9%)

58 (11%)

138 (13.9%)

 

- Active TB

18 (11.3%)

15 (4.9%)

11 (2%)

44 (4.4%)

 

Enrolling centre, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- Evelina London Children’s

26 (16.4%)

23 (7.5%)

14 (2.6%)

63 (6.4%)

 

Hospital, London, UK

     

- Great Ormond Street

8 (5%)

5 (1.6%)

2 (0.4%)

15 (1.5%)

 

Hospital, London, UK

     

- Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy

125 (78.6%)

280 (90.9%)

513 (97%)

918 (92.1%)

 

Age, median (IQR)

6.5 (4.2-10.3)

6.6 (4–9.7)

4.8 (2.5-7.6)

5.8 (3.1-8.5)

<0.0001

Gender, n (%):

    

0.106

- Male

85 (53.5%)

182 (59.1%)

329 (62.2%)

596 (59.8%)

 

- Female

74 (46.5%)

122 (39.6%)

195 (36.9%)

391 (39.3%)

 

- Not known

0 (0%)

4 (1.3%)

5 (0.9%)

9 (0.9%)

 

Country of origin*, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- Asia

27 (17%)

44 (14.3%)

98 (18.5%)

169 (17%)

 

- Latin America

25 (15.7%)

74 (24%)

112 (21.2%)

211 (21.2%)

 

- Eastern Europe §

48 (30.2%)

95 (30.8%)

188 (35.5%)

331 (33.2%)

 

- Western Europe

4 (2.5%)

18 (5.8%)

24 (4.5%)

46 (4.6%)

 

- Nord Africa

7 (4.4%)

8 (2.6%)

4 (0.8%)

19 (1.9%)

 

- Sub-Saharan Africa

42 (26.4%)

65 (21.1%)

98 (18.5%)

205 (20.6%)

 

- Other

1 (0.6%)

3 (1%)

4 (0.8%)

8 (0.8%)

 

- Not known

5 (3.1%)

1 (0.3%)

1 (0.2%)

7 (0.7%)

 

Ethnic group, n (%):

    

<0.0001

- African

50 (30.8%)

74 (24%)

101 (19.1%)

225 (22.6%)

 

- Asiatic

24 (15.1%)

43 (14%)

102 (19.3%)

169 (17%)

 

- Caucasian

52 (32.7%)

115 (37.3%)

211 (39.9%)

378 (37.9%)

 

- Hispanic

27 (17%)

73 (23.7%)

111 (21%)

211 (21.2%)

 

- Other

1 (1.2%)

2 (0.7%)

3 (0.5%)

6 (0.6%)

 

- Not known

5 (3.2%)

1 (0.3%)

1 (0.2%)

7 (0.7%)

 

Risk factors for vitamin D

    

0.932

deficiency†, n (%):

     

- Yes

93 (58.5%)

180 (58.4%)

303 (57.3%)

576 (57.8%)

 

- No

66 (41.5%)

128 (41.6%)

226 (42.7%)

420 (42.2%)

 

Season when blood test was

    

<0.0001

done, n (%):

     

- Spring-Summer

58 (36.5%)

145 (47.1)

339 (64.1%)

542 (54.4%)

 

- Winter-Autumn

101 (63.5%)

163 (52.9)

190 (35.9%)

454 (45.6%)

 

Vitamin D level (nmol/L), median (IQR)

20 (15.5-22.5)

37.5 (32.5-42.5)

72.5 (57.5-87.5)

35 (24–54.5)

 

Calcium (mmol/L), median (IQR)

2.35 (2.28-2.42)

2.37 (2.3-2.43)

2.38 (2.33-2.48)

2.4 (2.26-2.46)

0.030

Phosphate (mmol/L), median (IQR)

1.5 (1.3-1.65)

1.59 (1.41-1.68)

1.65 (1.49-1.81)

1.5 (1.28-1.61)

0.001

  1. *Whether the child’s family is originally from a TB endemic country, this has been indicated as country of origin, independently from the country of birth.
  2. §Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldavia, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Hungary.
  3. African, Asiatic and Hispanic ethnic group.