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Table 3 Characteristics of the population according to vitamin D status

From: Vitamin D and tuberculosis: a multicenter study in children

  Deficient n = 159 Insufficient n = 308 Sufficient n = 529 Total n = 996 P
TB status, n (%):      <0.0001
- Controls 113 (71.1%) 241 (78.2%) 460 (87%) 814 (81.7%)  
- Latent TB 28 (17.6%) 52 (16.9%) 58 (11%) 138 (13.9%)  
- Active TB 18 (11.3%) 15 (4.9%) 11 (2%) 44 (4.4%)  
Enrolling centre, n (%):      <0.0001
- Evelina London Children’s 26 (16.4%) 23 (7.5%) 14 (2.6%) 63 (6.4%)  
Hospital, London, UK      
- Great Ormond Street 8 (5%) 5 (1.6%) 2 (0.4%) 15 (1.5%)  
Hospital, London, UK      
- Anna Meyer Children's University Hospital, Florence, Italy 125 (78.6%) 280 (90.9%) 513 (97%) 918 (92.1%)  
Age, median (IQR) 6.5 (4.2-10.3) 6.6 (4–9.7) 4.8 (2.5-7.6) 5.8 (3.1-8.5) <0.0001
Gender, n (%):      0.106
- Male 85 (53.5%) 182 (59.1%) 329 (62.2%) 596 (59.8%)  
- Female 74 (46.5%) 122 (39.6%) 195 (36.9%) 391 (39.3%)  
- Not known 0 (0%) 4 (1.3%) 5 (0.9%) 9 (0.9%)  
Country of origin*, n (%):      <0.0001
- Asia 27 (17%) 44 (14.3%) 98 (18.5%) 169 (17%)  
- Latin America 25 (15.7%) 74 (24%) 112 (21.2%) 211 (21.2%)  
- Eastern Europe § 48 (30.2%) 95 (30.8%) 188 (35.5%) 331 (33.2%)  
- Western Europe 4 (2.5%) 18 (5.8%) 24 (4.5%) 46 (4.6%)  
- Nord Africa 7 (4.4%) 8 (2.6%) 4 (0.8%) 19 (1.9%)  
- Sub-Saharan Africa 42 (26.4%) 65 (21.1%) 98 (18.5%) 205 (20.6%)  
- Other 1 (0.6%) 3 (1%) 4 (0.8%) 8 (0.8%)  
- Not known 5 (3.1%) 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.2%) 7 (0.7%)  
Ethnic group, n (%):      <0.0001
- African 50 (30.8%) 74 (24%) 101 (19.1%) 225 (22.6%)  
- Asiatic 24 (15.1%) 43 (14%) 102 (19.3%) 169 (17%)  
- Caucasian 52 (32.7%) 115 (37.3%) 211 (39.9%) 378 (37.9%)  
- Hispanic 27 (17%) 73 (23.7%) 111 (21%) 211 (21.2%)  
- Other 1 (1.2%) 2 (0.7%) 3 (0.5%) 6 (0.6%)  
- Not known 5 (3.2%) 1 (0.3%) 1 (0.2%) 7 (0.7%)  
Risk factors for vitamin D      0.932
deficiency†, n (%):      
- Yes 93 (58.5%) 180 (58.4%) 303 (57.3%) 576 (57.8%)  
- No 66 (41.5%) 128 (41.6%) 226 (42.7%) 420 (42.2%)  
Season when blood test was      <0.0001
done, n (%):      
- Spring-Summer 58 (36.5%) 145 (47.1) 339 (64.1%) 542 (54.4%)  
- Winter-Autumn 101 (63.5%) 163 (52.9) 190 (35.9%) 454 (45.6%)  
Vitamin D level (nmol/L), median (IQR) 20 (15.5-22.5) 37.5 (32.5-42.5) 72.5 (57.5-87.5) 35 (24–54.5)  
Calcium (mmol/L), median (IQR) 2.35 (2.28-2.42) 2.37 (2.3-2.43) 2.38 (2.33-2.48) 2.4 (2.26-2.46) 0.030
Phosphate (mmol/L), median (IQR) 1.5 (1.3-1.65) 1.59 (1.41-1.68) 1.65 (1.49-1.81) 1.5 (1.28-1.61) 0.001
  1. *Whether the child’s family is originally from a TB endemic country, this has been indicated as country of origin, independently from the country of birth.
  2. §Albania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Macedonia, Moldavia, Poland, Czech Republic, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Ukraine, Hungary.
  3. African, Asiatic and Hispanic ethnic group.