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Table 2 Factors investigated for association with 30-day case fatality (univariate analysis)

From: Clinical and microbiological characteristics of bloodstream infections due to AmpC β-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae: an active surveillance cohort in a large centralized Canadian region

Factor Case fatality with factor Case fatality without factor Relative-risk (95% ci) P-value
Male 42/283 (15%) 18/175(10%) 1.44 (0.86-2.42) 0.20
*Age-adjusted Charlson > median (4) 48/230 (21%) 12/228 (5.3%) 3.97 (2.16-7.26) <0.001
Source of bacteremia     0.001
  Unknown 26/224 (12%)    
  Urinary 6/88 (6.8%)    
  Biliary 4/63 (6.3%)    
  Bowel 7/33 (21.1%)    
  Pneumonia 12/30 (40%)    
  Skin and soft tissue infection 3/11 (28%)    
  Bone and joint 2/7 (29%)    
  CNS 0/1 (0%)    
  CVS 0/1 (0%)    
Location of acquisition     0.015
  Nosocomial 41/232 (17.7%)    
  Healthcare associated 11/129 (8.5%)    
  Community-acquired 8/97 (8.2%)    
Microbiology**     0.012
Enterobacter spp. 33/255 (13%)    
  E. aerogenes 5/34 (15%)    
  E. asburiae 0/1 (0%)    
  E. cancerogenus 0/2 (0%)    
  E. cloacae 26/210 (13%)    
  E. sakazakii 2/6 (33%)    
  E. spp. 0/2 (0%)    
Serratia spp. 18/73 (25%)    
  S. liquefaciens 2/3 (66%)    
  S. marcescens 15/67 (22%)    
  S. odorfera 1/1 (100%)    
  S. spp. 0/2 (0%)    
Citrobacter spp.** 1/51 (2.0%)    
  C. braakii 0/17 (0%)    
  C. freundii 1/30 (3.3%)    
  C. spp. 0/2 (0%)    
  C. youngae 0/2 (0%)    
Escherichia coli 1/30 (3.3%)    
Morganella morganii 4/27 (15%)    
Providencia spp. 2/12 (17%)    
  P. rettgeri 1/3 (33%)    
  P. stuartii 1/9 (11%)    
Hafnei alvei 1/7 (14%)    
Salmonella spp. 0/2 (0%)    
Klebsiella pneumoniae 0/1 (0%)    
Plasmid mediated 1/33 (3.0%) 59/425 (14%) 0.22(0.03-1.53) 0.10
Description of empiric therapy     0.12
Empiric therapy in hours at:     
  t = 0 23/172 (13%)    
  t > 0 and t = 8 11/105 (10%)    
  t >8 and t = 24 17/114 (15%)    
  t > 24 and t = 48 3/36 (8.3%)    
  Empiric at t > 48 hrs. 3/26 (12%)    
  Never received empiric therapy. 3/5 (60%)    
Description of adequate therapy     0.05
Adequate therapy in hours at:     
  t = 0 hrs. 11/98 (11%)    
  t > 0 and t = 8 11/96 (11%)    
  t >8 and t = 24 23/133 (17%)    
  t > 24 and t = 48 5/62 (8.1%)    
  t > 48 hrs. 4/52 (7.7%)    
  Never received adequate or definitive therapy. 6/17 (35%)    
  1. CNS: Central Nervous System. CVS: Cardiovascular System. 95% CI: 95% Confidence Interval.
  2. *Charlson data was missing for 11 patients; their Charlson score was assumed to be zero and then adjusted for age.
  3. **Some isolates were not speciated beyond the genus level.