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Table 1 Clinical and laboratory characteristics of children in the present study

From: Viral pathogens in children hospitalized with features of central nervous system infection in a malaria-endemic region of Papua New Guinea

  Malaria parasitaemia No malaria parasitaemia  
Characteristics Viruses (n = 19) Bacteria (n = 10) Malaria alone (n = 69) Viruses (n = 23) Bacteria (n = 10) No pathogen (n = 176) P -values
Age 40 [29–80]a 36 [29–38]b 36 [23–60]c 7 [5–25]a 6.5 [5–18]b 15 [6–44]c <0.001
Male sex 11 (57.9) 5 (50) 37 (53.6) 14 (60.9) 5 (50) 110 (62.5) 0.90
Convulsions 13 (68.4) 7 (70) 50 (72.5) 13 (56.5) 2 (20) 102 (58) 0.03
Neck stiffness 1 (5.3) 2 (20) 13 (18.8) 8 (34.8) 4 (40) 37 (21.0) 0.27
Kernig’s sign positive 0 (0) 0 (0) 4 (5.8) 2 (8.7) 0 (0) 9 (5.1) 0.90
Brudzinski’s sign positive 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1.4) 1 (4.4) 0 (0) 3 (1.7) 0.96
Impaired consciousness 10 (52.6) 4 (40) 38 (55.1)c 5 (21.7) 1 (10) 32 (18.2)c <0.001
Haemoglobin (g/L) 71 [58–106] 78.5 [71–106] 85 [68–102] 91 [65–111] 101.5 [89–106] 96 [84.5–109] 0.07
White blood cells (X109/L) 8.4 [5.7–14.2] 7.4 [5.6–10] 8.6 [5.7–11.7] 7.9 [5.3–15.5] 8.6 [4.8–13.2] 9.8 [7.4–12.7] 0.50
Platelets (X109/L) 100 [63–222]d 147 [100–238] 103 [46–206]c 368 [197–378] 618 [305–992] 265 [165–390]c,d <0.001
Lactate (mmol/L) 2.7 [2.0–4.6] 1.8 [1.2–2.4] 3.4 [2.0–5.3] 1.2 [1.0–4.2] 4.3 [3.3–15.7] 2.4 [1.9–3.3] 0.01
CSF leukocytes (cells/μL) 0 [0–5] 2.5 [0–30] 0 [0–5] 5 [0–10] 0 [0–5] 0 [0–5] 0.04
CSF protein (g/L) 0.3 [0.3–0.3] 0.3 [0.15–0.3] 0.3 [0.15–0.3] 0.3 [0.3–0.3] 0.3 [0.3–0.3] 0.3 [0.15–0.3] 0.35
Death 1 (5.3) 0 (0) 2 (2.9) 1 (4.4) 1 (10) 9 (5.1) 0.93
Discharged with disability 2 (10.5) 0 (0) 1 (1.4) 2 (8.7) 0 (0) 9 (5.1) 0.46
  1. Data are numbers (percent) for dichotomous variables or medians (interquartile range) for continuous variables. Due to viral and bacterial co-infections in 7 children, numbers do not add to 300.
  2. aSignificant post-test pairwise comparison (P < 0.05) between malarial and non-malarial infection in children with viruses identified.
  3. bSignificant post-test pairwise comparison (P < 0.05) between malarial and non-malarial infection in children with bacteria identified.
  4. cSignificant post-test pairwise comparison (P < 0.05) between malarial and non-malarial infection in children without virus or bacterial nucleic acids identified.
  5. dSignificant post-test pairwise comparison (P < 0.05) between malarial-viral co-infection and no pathogen identified.