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Table 5 Age-specific symptoms/signs and laboratory features of patients with influenza, dengue, and other febrile illnesses

From: Use of simple clinical and laboratory predictors to differentiate influenza from dengue and other febrile illnesses in the emergency room

Variable Age ≤18 years Age >18 years
Inf vs. Den (Inf, n = 445; Den, n = 24) Inf vs. OFI (Inf, n = 445; OFI, n = 130) Inf vs. Den (Inf, n = 81; Den, n = 124) Inf vs. OFI (Inf, n = 81; OFI, n = 45)
Symptom/signa (n [%])     
Rhinorrhea 297 (66.7) vs. 0*** 297 (66.7) vs. 65 (50)** 36 (44.4) vs. 0*** 36 (44.4) vs. 8 (17.8)**
Cough 311 (69.9) vs. 3 (12.5)*** 311 (69.9) vs. 94 (72.3) 45 (55.6) vs. 35 (28.2)*** 45 (55.6) vs. 18 (40)*
Sore throat 163 (36.6) vs. 4 (16.7) 163 (36.6) vs. 27 (20.8)** 44 (54.3) vs. 20 (16.1)*** 44 (54.3) vs. 16 (35.6)
Malaise 141 (31.6) vs. 14 (58.3)* 141 (31.6) vs. 8 (6.2)*** 42 (51.9) vs. 81 (65.3) 42 (51.9) vs. 13 (28.9)*
Headache 125 (28.1) vs. 11 (45.8) 125 (28.1) vs. 21 (16.2)** 24 (29.6) vs. 51 (41.1) 24 (29.6) vs. 12 (26.7)
Vomiting/nausea 106 (23.8) vs. 8 (33.3) 106 (23.8) vs. 33 (25.4) 10 (12.3) vs. 35 (28.2)** 10 (12.3) vs. 4 (8.9)
Diarrhea 54 (12.1) vs. 3 (12.5) 54 (12.1) vs. 19 (14.6) 3 (3.7) vs. 12 (9.7) 3 (3.7) vs. 7 (15.6)*
Abdominal pain 34 (7.6) vs. 4 (16.7) 34 (7.6) vs. 14 (10.8) 6 (7.4) vs. 27 (21.8)** 6 (7.4) vs. 4 (8.9)
Joint pain 18 (4) vs. 6 (25) 18 (4) vs. 7 (5.4) 8 (9.9) vs. 68 (54.8)*** 8 (9.9) vs. 3 (6.7)
Orbital pain 0 vs. 2 (8.3)** 0 (0) vs. 2 (1.5) 0 vs. 15 (12.1)** 0 vs. 0
Rashes 5 (1.1) vs. 11(45.8)*** 5 (1.1) vs. 0 0 vs. 77 (62.1)*** 0 vs. 0
Dyspnea 24 (5.6) vs. 1 (4.1) 24 (5.6) vs. 1 (0.8)* 17 (3.7) vs. 2 (1.6)*** 17 (3.7) vs. 0**
Drowsiness 10 (2.2) vs. 0 10 (2.2) vs. 0 3 (3.7) vs. 0 3 (3.7) vs. 0
Seizures 6 (1.3) vs. 0 6 (1.3) vs. 0 2 (2.5) vs. 0 2 (2.5) vs. 0
Laboratory characteristics     
Leukopenia (WBC <3.0 × 109 cells/L) (n/N [%]) 6/231 (2.6) vs. 14/23 (60.8)*** 6/231 (2.6) vs. 1/116 (0.8) 3/52 (5.8) vs. 68/123 (55.3)*** 3/52 (5.8) vs. 3/36 (8.3)
Platelet count 149-100 × 109 cells/L (n/N [%]) 24/189 (12.6) vs. 6/23 (26) 24/189 (12.6) vs. 2/106 (1.9)** 14/49 (28.6) vs. 21/123 (17.1) 14/49 (28.6) vs. 3/27 (11.1)
Platelet count <100 × 109 cells/L (n/N [%]) 3/189 (1.6) vs. 12/23 (52.2)*** 3/189 (1.6) vs. 2/106 (1.9) 4/49 (8.2) vs. 97/123 (78.9)*** 4/49 (8.2) vs. 1/27 (3.7)
  1. Inf = influenza; Den = dengue; OFI = other febrile illnesses; WBC = white blood count; n/N = number of patients/total number of patients with data available.
  2. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.01; ***P < 0.001.
  3. aAn individual patient might have more than one symptom/sign.