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Table 1 General characteristics of studies included in a literature review of drug sales data analyses for surveillance of infectious diseases

From: Drug sales data analysis for outbreak detection of infectious diseases: a systematic literature review

Author Study period Location Syndrome Drug data sources Drug status Time scale
RETROSPECTIVE STUDIES     
Sugawara et al. [27] 2012 2009/2010 Japan ILI Prescription drug purchases from 5275 pharmacies Prescribed Week
2010/2011
Polgreen et al. [23] 2011 Jan 1999– Sept 2007 Ohio, USA GI IMS Health’s Xponent database (Data from retail pharmacies, covering 70% of all prescriptions) Prescribed Month
Chopra et al. [12] 2011 April–Dec 2009 Southeastern Michigan, USA ILI In-site pharmacies of eight hospitals in Southeastern Michigan Prescribed Week
Kirian et al. [19] 2010 July 2003-Dec 2007 San Francisco Bay area GI Sales available through the National Retail Data Monitor in three San Francisco Bay Area counties (number of stores reporting per week: 592-837) OTC Week
Yoshida et al. [30] 2009 Dec 2006-April 2007 Sahai City, Osaka, Japan ILI Questionnaires mailed to 273 pharmacies. 56% responding pharmacies. (456,000 people) Prescribed Week
Van den Wijngaard et al. [28] 2008 2001-2003 The Netherlands ILI Foundation for pharmaceutical statistics (85% of Dutch pharmacies) (13,8 million people) Prescribed Week
Edge et al. [17] 2006 Jan 2001-April 2004 Canada (one province) GI One major retailer with 19 locations (12% of the pharmacies in the region) OTC Week
Das et al. [14] 2005 Aug 2002-March 2005 New York City ILI and GI New York City Department of Health (248 NYC pharmacies, 30% of citywide sales) OTC Day
Okhusa et al. [22] 2005 Nov 2003-April 2004 Japan ILI Private marketing company (1100 pharmacies, 2% of the pharmacies in Japan) OTC Day
Chen et al. [11] 2005 March 2003-July 2004 A rural county in New York State Pertussis Medicaid database reimbursement Prescribed Day
Edge et al. [16] 2004 Jan-May 2001 (Saskatchewan) March-June 2000 (Ontario) Battleford (Saskatchewan), Walkerton(Ontario) GI One pharmacy in Battleford, one pharmacy in Walkerton OTC Week
Magruder et al. [21] 2004 2001-2003 Maryland-Washington-Virginia ILI Johns Hopkins Applied Physics laboratory (300 drugstores in the Maryland-Washington-Virginia area) OTC Day
Couturier et al. [13] 2004 2001-2003 Paris and five french regions Syphilis A centralized wholesaler supplying all French private pharmacies Prescribed Month
Hogan et al. [18] 2003 1998-2001 Pennsylvania, Indiana, Utah ILI and GI Information Resources, Inc., private company (90% market share in all the region) OTC Week
Magruder [20] 2003 2001-2002 Maryland-Washington-Virginia ILI Johns Hopkins APL (300 drugstores in the Maryland-Washington-Virginia area) OTC Day
Davies et al. [15] 2003 1998/1999, 1999/2000, 2000/2001 Nottingham city ILI Retailers (Boots the chemist, 30% of market share) in the hospital area, and a pharmaceutical company (Reckitt Benckiser) at national level OTC Week
Stirling et al. [26] 2001 Jan-May 2001 North Battleford, Saskatchewan GI Three pharmacies OTC Week
Proctor et al. [24] 1998 1993 Milwaukee (Wisconsin, USA) GI One pharmacy OTC Day
Rodman et al. [25] 1997 1993(Milkauwee)/1994 (Las Vegas)/1996 (Collingwood,Kelowna, Cranbrook) Milwaukee (Wisconsin); Collingwood (Ontario), Kelowna, Cranbrook (British Colombia), Las Vegas(Nevada) GI One pharmacy in Milwaukee, 3 pharmacies in Collingwood, 10 to 12 pharmacies in Kelowna and Cranbrook. OTC Month
Welliver et al. [29] 1979 1976/1977 Los Angeles ILI One large supermarket chain OTC Week
DRUG SELECTION STUDIES      
Pelat et al. [33] 2010 2000-2009 France GI IMS Health (7,500 pharmacies in 2000-13,300 in 2008, 59% of the pharmacies in France, covering all continental France) OTC and prescribed Week
Cami et al. [31] 2009 Jul 2003- Dec 2006 Region around the city of Houston, TX, USA ILI AC Nielsen Corp (pharmacy sales in a region around Houston) OTC Week
Wallstrom et al. [34] 2007 2002-2004 Pennsylvania, USA ILI AC Nielsen Corp (pharmacy sales in western Pennsylvania) OTC Week
Li et al. [32] 2005 Jan 1998- Dec 2001 Pennsylvania, USA ILI and GI Information Resources, Inc., private company (90% market share in the region) OTC Week
Magruder et al. [21] 2004 2001-2003 Maryland-Washington-Virginia ILI Johns Hopkins APL (300 drugstores in the Maryland-Washington-Virginia area) OTC Day
PREDICTION STUDIES      
Vergu et al. [37] 2006 2000-2004 France ILI IMS Health (11,000 pharmacies, 50% of all pharmacies in France) OTC and prescribed Week
Najmi et al. [36] 2005 2001-2003 Maryland-Washington-Virginia ILI Johns Hopkins APL (300 drugstores in the Maryland-Washington-Virginia area) OTC Day
Najmi et al. [35] 2004 2001-2002 Maryland-Washington-Virginia ILI Johns Hopkins APL (300 drugstores in the Maryland-Washington-Virginia area) OTC Day
  1. Abbreviations: ILI Influenza-like illness, GI Gastrointestinal, OTC Over-the-counter drugs.