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Table 3 Factors associated with attitudes towards implementation of control measures for reducing risk of avian influenza outbreaks in live poultry markets

From: Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to influenza A(H7N9) risk among live poultry traders in Guangzhou City, China

Independent variables    Association with attitudes towards control measures (aOR (95%CI))
N % Step 1 (social-demographics) Step 2 (knowledge) Step 3 (attitudes)
Sex      
  Male 139 45.4 ref ref ref
  Female 167 54.6 0.60 (0.36, 1.01) 0.66 (0.38, 1.14) 0.65 (0.37, 1.15)
Age (y)      
  15-24 87 28.4 0.75 (0.40, 1.40) 0.73 (0.38, 1.42) 0.99 (0.48, 2.05)
  35-54 198 64.7 ref ref ref
  ≥55 21 6.9 1.29 (0.47, 3.60) 1.40 (0.49, 3.99) 1.03 (0.33, 3.21)
Education      
  Illiterate 76 24.8 0.69 (0.37, 1.27) 0.90 (0.40, 1.77) 0.95 (0.47, 1.94)
  Primary 155 50.7 ref ref ref
  Secondary or above 75 24.5 0.93 (0.49, 1.77) 0.86 (0.43, 1.70) 0.96 (0.46, 2.00)
Income (CY)      
  <1000 35 11.4 ref ref ref
  1000-3000 174 56.9 0.87 (0.40, 1.88) 0.86 (0.38, 1.93) 0.99 (0.41, 2.35)
  >3000 97 31.7 1.80 (0.77, 4.23) 1.94 (0.79, 4.74) 1.92 (0.74, 4. 98)
Area      
  Urban 182 59.5 ref ref ref
  Rural 124 40.5 0.89 (0.53, 1.51) 1.02 (0.58, 1.77) 0.99 (0.54, 1.82)
Years of working activity      
  < 4 76 24.8 ref ref ref
  4-10 154 50.3 0.93 (0.48, 1.80) 0.86 (0.43, 1.74) 0.99 (0.47, 2.09)
  >10 76 24.8 0.52 (0.24, 1.12) 0.60 (0.27, 1.35) 1.08 (0.45, 2.60)
Daily average hours of contact with living poultry      
  <8 11 3.6 ref ref ref
  8-10 163 53.3 1.63 (0.43, 6.19) 0.86 (0.43, 1.74) 1.29 (0.29, 5.70)
  >10 132 43.1 1.40 (0.37, 5.34) 0.60 (0.27, 1.35) 1.50 (0.33, 6.73)
Involved poultry slaughtering      
  No 39 12.8 ref ref ref
  Yes 267 87.5 0.22 (0.08, 0.62) ** 0.33 (0.11, 0.96) * 0.45 (0.15, 1.39)
Number of sources to access information on H7N9      
  1 117 38.2 - ref ref
  2-3 145 47.4 - 1.08 (0.60, 1.94) 0.94 (0.50, 1.78)
  4 or above 44 14.4 - 6.42 (1.65, 24.91) ** 5.06 (1.21, 21.11) *
With accurate knowledge in      
  There is no reported H7N9 human cases in Guangdong Province (before June 30, 2013) 240 78.4 - 0.83 (0.40, 1.71) 0.95 (0.45, 2.01)
  Sick or dead birds should be buried or burned 238 77.8 - 1.70 (0.87, 3.32) 1.56 (0.76, 3.18)
  H7N9 is not transmissible from human to human 237 77.5 - 1.22 (0.61, 2.44) 1.19 (0.57, 2.47)
  Fever, cough and sore throat are early symptoms of H7N9 infection 218 71.2 - 1.52 (0.82, 2.83) 1.73 (0.87, 3.43)
  Contacts with bird secretions or feces is a high risk for H7N9 infection 141 46.1 - 1.28 (0.71, 2.32) 1.13 (0.59, 2.15)
  Human H7N9 vaccine is not yet available 134 43.8 - 1.36 (0.77, 2.39) 1.65 (0.90, 3.03)
Perceived severity of H7N9 compared with SARS      
  Much less/less 178 58.2 - - ref
  Almost the same 58 19.0 - - 2.17 (0.94, 4.99)
  More/much more 70 22.9 - - 1.62 (0.82, 3.21)
Perceived personal susceptibility to H7N9 infection      
  Very unlikely/unlikely 191 62.4 - - ref
  Neutral 45 14.7 - - 2.95 (1.14, 7.67) *
  Likely/very likely 70 22.9 - - 2.54 (1.03, 6.26) *
Agree/strongly agreea in:      
  Confident in self-protection 229 74.8 - - 0.50 (0.22, 1.14)
  Transparent and timely dissemination of information 267 87.3 - - 0.54 (0.21, 1.44)
  Good control over the epidemic by the government 244 79.7 - - 0.92 (0.39, 2.18)
  Satisfied with the current control measures 230 75.2 - - 1.85 (0.88, 3.89)
Model summary      
  G(−2Log likelihood)    -367.1 -343.5 -321.8
  p-valueb     0.005 0.006
  Cox & Snell R Square    0.090 0.158 0.216
  ΔR2     0.068 0.058
  1. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to include block of variables sequentially.
  2. aOR: adjusted odds ratio; CY: Chinese Yuan (1 CY = 0.1469); US dollar; CI: confidence interval.
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001.
  4. aCompared to "strongly disagree", "disagree" and "somewhat agree".
  5. blog-likelihood test for the significance of the factor, comparing to the previous step.