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Table 2 Factors associated with preventive practices against H7N9. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to include block of variables sequentially

From: Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to influenza A(H7N9) risk among live poultry traders in Guangzhou City, China

Independent variables    Association with preventive practices against H7N9 (aOR (95% CI))
N % Step 1 (social-demographics) Step 2 (knowledge) Step 3 (attitudes)
Sex      
  Male 139 45.4 ref ref ref
  Female 167 54.6 0.96 (0.53,1.72) 1.27 (0.63, 2.57) 1.66 (0.76,3.62)
Age (y)      
  15-24 87 28.4 0.76 (0.38,1.54) 0.72 (0.30, 1.71) 0.72 (0.27,1.90)
  35-54 198 64.7 ref ref ref
  ≥55 21 6.9 8.12 (2.63, 25.07) *** 14.19 (3.61, 55.77) ** 13.18 (2.75,63.06) **
Education      
  Illiterate 76 24.8 0.26 (0.11, 0.57) ** 0.32 (0.11, 0.92) * 0.35 (0.11,1.08)
  Primary 155 50.7 ref ref ref
  Secondary or above 75 24.5 0.72 (0.36,1.45) 0.53 (0.23,1.22) 0.61 (0.25, 1.49)
Income (CY)      
  <1000 35 11.4 ref ref ref
  1000-3000 174 56.9 1.04 (0.41,2.69) 1.24 (0.40,3.81) 1.25 (0.35,4.40)
  >3000 97 31.7 1.28 (0.47,3.50) 1.98 (0.59,6.69) 1.47 (0.38,5.66)
Area      
  Rural 124 40.5 ref ref ref
  Urban 182 59.5 0.38 (0.21,0.69) ** 0.60 (0.29,1.22) 0.72 (0.31, 1.64)
Years of working activity      
  <4 76 24.8 ref ref ref
  4-10 154 50.3 1.22 (0.58,2.55) 0.77 (0.32,1.87) 0.80 (0.31, 2.05)
  >10 76 24.8 0.57 (0.23,1.44) 0.53 (0.18,1.53) 0.76 (0.23, 2.49)
Daily average hours of contact with living poultry      
  <8 11 3.6 ref ref ref
  8-10 163 53.3 0.60 (0.16,2.32) 1.11 (0.22,5.49) 0.63 (0.13,3.20)
  >10 132 43.1 0.13 (0.03, 0.55) * 0.28 (0.05,1.42) 0.15 (0.03,0.80) *
Involved poultry slaughtering      
  No 39 12.8 ref ref ref
  Yes 267 87.5 0.16 (0.06, 0.38) *** 0.19 (0.06,0.65) ** 0.22 (0.05,0.88) *
Number of sources to access information on H7N9      
  1 117 38.2 - ref ref
  2-3 145 47.4 - 2.41 (1.06, 5.45) * 2.42 (0.95,6.17)
  4 or above 44 14.4 - 24.0 (5.95, 96.52) *** 25.92 (5.18, 129.66) ***
With accurate knowledge in      
  There is no reported H7N9 human cases in Guangdong Province (before June 30, 2013) 240 78.4 - 1.65 (0.67,4.04) 2.16 (0.78, 5.98)
  Sick or dead birds should be buried or burned 238 77.8 - 8.96 (2.59,31.08) ** 9.55 (2.41, 37.82) **
  H7N9 is not transmissible from human to human 237 77.5 - 3.31 (1.28, 8.57) * 3.66 (1.23, 10.87) *
  Fever, cough and sore throat are early symptoms of H7N9 infection 218 71.2 - 0.42 (0.16,1.09) 0.41 (0.14,1.20)
  Contacts with bird secretions or feces is a high risk for H7N9 infection 141 46.1 - 2.37 (1.12, 5.03) * 2.20 (0.96, 5.03)
Human H7N9 vaccine is not yet available 134 43.8 - 0.92 (0.45,1.91) 1.20 (0.53,2.70)
  Perceived severity of H7N9 compared with SARS      
  Much less/less 178 58.2 - - ref
  Almost the same 58 19.0 - - 1.55 (0.48, 5.03)
  More/much more 70 22.9 - - 0.74 (0.28, 1.97)
Perceived personal susceptibility to H7N9 infection      
  Very unlikely/unlikely 191 62.4 - - ref
  Neutral 45 14.7 - - 6.41 (2.26, 18.19) ***
  Likely/very likely 70 22.9 - - 4.73 (1.76, 12.70) **
Agree/strongly agreea in:      
  Confident in self-protection 229 74.8 - - 1.46 (0.55, 3.90)
  Transparent and timely dissemination of information 267 87.3 - - 0.74 (0.23,2.43)
  Good control over the epidemic by the government 244 79.7 - - 0.53 (0.17,1.65)
  Satisfied with the current control measures 230 75.2 - - 1.88 (0.56,6.36)
Model summary      
  G(-2Log likelihood)    −300.6 -224.9 -200.0
  p-valueb     <0.001 0.004
  Cox & Snell R Square    0.249 0.414 0.459
  ΔR2     0.165 0.045
  1. aOR: adjusted odds ratio; CY: Chinese Yuan (1 CY = 0.1469); US dollar; CI: confidence interval.
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01 ***p < 0.001.
  3. aCompared to "strongly disagree", "disagree" and "somewhat agree".
  4. bLog-likelihood test for the significance of the factor, comparing to the previous step.