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Table 1 Time delays in diagnosis among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Low and middle income countries

From: Time delays in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis: a systematic review of literature

Year of
Study
Country Study
Design
Study setting Patient
delay
Health system
delay
Total delay Reference
1997 Vietnam Cross-sectional, Interview District TB Units 3 w 7 w 9.9 w [13]
1999 South Africa Cross-sectional, interview Hospitalized patients 4 w 4 w 10 w [14]
1998 Tanzania Cross-sectional, interview Government health facilities 162 d 21 d 185 d [15]
2003 Ethiopia Cross-sectional, interview TB management Units 15 d 61 d 80 d [16]
2002 China Longitudinal recruitment, interview County TB Dispensaries 12.5 d 16 d 25 d [17]
2001 China Cross-sectional, patient records & interview All types of health facilities 12.5 d 2 d 57 d [18]
1997–1998 India Cross-sectional All types of health facilities 20 d 23 d 60 d [19]
1998–2000 Thailand Longitudinal recruitment Tertiary hospital 13.3 d 8.2 d - [20]
1996 Vietnam Cross-sectional, interview Government health facilities 5.8 w 6.1 w 11.9 w [21]
2002 Uganda Cross-sectional, interview TB treatment centres & hospitals 1 w 9 w 12 w [22]
2000–2001 Nigeria Longitudinal recruitment, interview Tertiary hospital 8 w 1 w 10 w [23]
2002 Vietnam Cross-sectional, interview District TB units 3 w 1 w 4 w [24]
2004 China Cross-sectional, interview TB dispensaries 30 d 24 d 65 d [25]
2003 India Cross-sectional, TB records and interview DOTS clinics 21 d 7 d 32 d [26]
2003 India Cross-sectional, interview Government health facilities 28 d 28 d 62 d [27]
2003–2004 Thailand Longitudinal recruitment, interview Community and tertiary hospital 4.4 w 2.8 w 9.4 w [28]
2001 Ethiopia Cross-sectional, interview Public health centres 60 d 6 d 64 d [29]
1993–1994 Botswana Cross-sectional, TB records & interview TB clinics 3 w 8 w 12 w [30]
1997–1999 Nepal Longitudinal recruitment & interview Government health facilities 0.7 m 1.5 m 2.8 m [31]
1995 Ghana Cross-sectional, interview Chest clinic of a teaching hospital 4 w 8 w 12 w [32]
1997 Malaysia Cross-sectional, Interview University Hospital 2 w 7 w 12.5 w [33]
2003–2004 Malaysia Cross-sectional, Interview TB clinics 30 d 22 d - [34]
1999 Turkey Cross-sectional, Interview Hospitalized patients 26.9 13.1 d   [35]
2003 Bolivia Cross-sectional, interview TB clinics 3.6 w 6.2 w 12.9 w [36]
1997 Gambia Cross-sectional, interview All types of health centres 0.7 w 10.8 w 11.5 w [37]
2004 Turkey Cross-sectional, interview Tertiary care hospital 46.4 d 30.3 d - [38]
2001 Turkey Cross-sectional, interview Tertiary care hospital 31.4 d 25.4 d - [39]
2006 China Historical cohort, interview - 19 d 5 d 31 d [40]
1994 Malaysia Longitudinal recruitment, interview Tertiary care hospital 15 d 35 d 90 d [41]
1996 Mongolia Cross-sectional, Interview Specialist TB centres 29 d 35 d 78 d [42]
2008 China Retrospective analysis of computerized patient records County TB centres 60 d 4 d 71 d [43]
2008 Argentina Cross-sectional survey, Interview Public health facilities 59 d 33 d 92 d [44]
2007 Bangladesh Cross-sectional survey Public health facilities 50 d 11 d 60 d [45]
2003/4 Pakistan Cross-sectional survey, interview Chest clinics 9 d 87 d 91 d [46]
2003/4 Iran Cross-sectional survey, interview Public health facilities 24 d 42 d 88 d [46]
2003/4 Somalia Cross-sectional survey, interview DOTS centres 53 d 7 d 58 d [46]
2003/4 Egypt Cross-sectional survey, interview Public health facilities 12 d 18 d 42 d [46]
2003/4 Iraq Cross-sectional survey, interview Tertiary care hospital 31 d 2 d 36 d [46]
2003/4 Yemen Cross-sectional survey, interview Public health facilities 28 d 4 d 35 d [46]
2002–2004 Syria Cross-sectional interview DOTS centres 52.7 d 27.6 d 77.6 d [46]
2008 South Africa Cross-sectional, interview Hospital-based 14 30 60 [47]
2003 Syria Prospective recruitment DOTS Clinic 31 12 55 [48]
2005 Kenya Cross-sectional
interview
TB/Chest clinic 42 2 44 [49]
2003 Columbia Cross-sectional
interview
Chest/TB Clinics 30 60 120 [50]
2006 Pakistan Cross-sectional Chest clinic at Teaching hospital 33 60 90 [51]
  1. d-days, w-weeks, m-months