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Table 4 Characteristics of included studies: groups with persistent diarrhoea

From: Pathogens associated with persistent diarrhoea in children in low and middle income countries: systematic review

Study report Location Start Duration Participants Source of cases Sampling method Number of cases Unit of Analysis
Bangladesh 1992a [16] Matlab (rural) 1988
1 yr
< 5 yrs Active household surveillance All cases identified Varied by pathogen (68 – 184) Episodes
Bangladesh 1992b [17] Mirzapur (rural) 1987
2 yrs
< 6 yrs Active household surveillance All cases identified Varied by pathogen (53 – 153) Episodes
India 1989 [18] New Delhi 1984
1 yr
< 2 yrs, no blood in stool, weight loss Hospital admissions Consecutive cases 92 Children
India 1992 [19] New Delhi 1988
28 mths
< 3 yrs, no blood in stool, weight for height = 90% of standard Hospital admissions Not described 81 Children
India 1999 [22] Slum New Delhi Unclear
Unclear
< 3 yrs Active household surveillance All cases identified 115 Episodes
Brazil 1990 [26] Urban slum, Fortaleza 1984
28 mths
< 5 yrs Active household surveillance All cases identified 40 Episodes
Brazil 1995 [29] Fortaleza 1988
32 mths
< 3 yrs, no antibiotics in past 72 hrs Hospital admissions Not described 56 Children
Brazil 2000 [4] Shanty town Fortaleza 1989
45 mths
< 4 yrs Active household surveillance All cases identified 88 Episodes
Bangladesh 1988 [14] Dhaka 1983
3 yrs
< 5 yrs Outpatient attendances Systematic every 25th case 410 Children
Bangladesh 1991 [15] Dhaka 1983
3 yrs
1 mth to 3 yrs Outpatient attendances Systematic every 25th case Varied by pathogen (391–445) Children
Bangladesh 1998 [31] Dhaka Unclear
3 yrs
3 mths to 2 yrs, no blood in stools, no antibiotics, anti-diarrhoeals or systemic infection Outpatient attendances Not described 138 Children
India 1995a [20] Madras Unclear
Unclear
< 5 yrs Hospital admissions Not described 100 Children
India 1995b [21] Amritsar Unclear
Unclear
< 3 yrs Hospital admissions Not described 150 Children
India 2001 [23] Varanasi 1998
15 mths
1 to 5 yrs, weight loss or failure to gain weight Hospital admissions & outpatient attendances Randomly 57 Children
Guatemala 1992 [27] Rural indigenous community 1988
20 mths
< 3 yrs, watery diarrhoea for 14 to 18 days Active household surveillance All cases identified 49 Children
Mexico 2003 [28] Mexico City 1997
Unclear (24–36 mths)
mean age 16.6 mths, no specific diagnosis Hospital admissions Not described 89 Children
Cambodia 1992 [24] Resettlement camp, Thailand Cambodia border 1989
6 mths
< 5 yrs, with temperature over 38°C, colic or vomiting Outpatient attendances Consecutive cases 79 Children
Vietnam 1992 [25] Hanoi 1988
1 yr
< 3 yrs Hospital admissions Not described 83 Children
Zambia 1995 [32] Lusaka Unclear
9 mths
15 mths to 5 yrs; diarrhoea for at least 30 days Hospital admissions Consecutive cases every alternate day 90 Children
Zambia 2001 [30] Lusaka 1998
26 mths
Inpatient in nutrition ward, median 18 mths, no blood in stool Hospital admissions Consecutive cases 194 Children