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Table 3 Factors associated with virological failure and low plasma NNRTI concentrations

From: Risk factors for virological failure and subtherapeutic antiretroviral drug concentrations in HIV-positive adults treated in rural northwestern Uganda

  Virological failure Low NNRTI concentrations
  n/N Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis n/N Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
   OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value   OR (95% CI) P value OR (95% CI) P value
M24 cohort (vs. M12) 50/506 1.8 (1.1–3.0) 0.02 2.0 (1.2–3.6) 0.01 32/505 0.6 (0.4–1.0) 0.06 0.7 (0.4–1.1) 0.15
Age at ART start (vs. 15–34)           
   ≥ 35 years 40/506 0.5 (0.3–0.9) 0.02 0.5 (0.3–0.8) 0.01 46/505 1.1 (0.7–1.9) 0.58 - -
School level (vs. secondary or higher)
   Primary or no education 47/506 0.8 (0.5–1.4) 0.50 - - 53/505 1.5 (0.9–2.6) 0.14 1.3 (0.8–2.4) 0.3
Non-cumulative WHO stage at survey (vs. asymptomatic)
   Stage 1–2 32/490 1.9 (1.2–3.3) 0.04 1.9 (1.1–3.3) 0.06      
   Stage 3–4 6/490 1.1 (0.4–2.8)   0.8 (0.3–2.2)   - - - - -
TB episode after ART 11/506 2.1 (0.9–4.3) 0.06 2.3 (1.0–5.0) 0.04 - - - - -
Weight ≤ baseline 32/506 1.9 (1.2–3.3) 0.009 2.2 (1.3–3.9) 0.004 15/505 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 0.07 0.6 (0.3–1.1) 0.11
ARV-related toxicity           
   Digestive 49/506 1.6 (0.9–2.8) 0.05 1.5 (0.8–2.6) 0.15 48/505 1.8 (1.1–3.0) 0.03 1.7 (0.9–2.9) 0.05
   Dermatologic 31/506 1.8 (1.1–2.9) 0.03 1.6 (0.9–2.8) 0.08 21/505 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.82 - -
   General symptoms* 30/506 2.3 (1.4–3.9) 0.002 2.6 (1.5–4.5) 0.001 17/505 0.9 (0.5–1.6) 0.74 - -
Poor adherence to ART (<95% vs. ≥ 95%)
   % pills taken in last 4d 11/506 1.8 (0.0–3.8) 0.11 1.1 (0.4–2.6) 0.85 17/505 4.0 (2.1–7.7) 0.0001 3.8 (1.9–7.4) <0.0001
   30-day VAS 19/506 3.4 (1.8–6.4) 0.0002 3.9 (1.9–7.7) 0.0001 - - - - -
Nadir CD4 + <50 cells/mm 3 (vs. ≥ 50) 24/506 1.5 (0.9–2.6) 0.14 1.5 (0.8–2.6) 0.20 19/503 1.1 (0.6–1.9) 0.77 - -
Low NNRTI plasma concentration at survey 17/505 1.9 (1.1–3.7) 0.03 2.4 (1.2–4.8) 0.01 - - - - -
  1. TB, tuberculosis; VAS, visual analogue scale; NNRTI, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval.
  2. *General signs or symptoms: myalgia, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, or lymphadenopathy; VAS.
  3. Multiple logistic regression using backward elimination approach and controlling for the effect of all variables for which adjusted estimates are shown.