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Table 4 Selected determinants of HPV DNA detection in children at any time during follow up.

From: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection in pregnant women and mother-to-child transmission of genital HPV genotypes: a prospective study in Spain

Mother's and pregnancy characteristics HPV
Positive/Tested
HPV-positive children
(%)
OR (95% CI)
Total 26/143 18.2%   
Age at delivery     
<26 5/22 22.7 1.0 Reference
26–30 9/45 20.0 0.85 (0.25–2.93)
31–35 8/52 15.4 0.62 (0.18–2.16)
>35 4/24 16.7 0.68 (0.16–2.94)
Chi-square p-value 0.87    
Weeks of pregnancy at delivery     
<38 3/13 23.1 1.0 Reference
38–39 15/80 18.8 0.77 (0.19–3.14)
>39 8/50 16.0 0.64 (0.14–2.84)
Chi-square p-value 0.82    
Type of delivery     
Eutocic 12/86 14.0 1.0 Reference
Instrumental 10/38 26.3 2.20 (0.85–5.68)
Cesarean section 4/19 21.1 1.60 (0.45–5.75)
Chi-square p-value 0.24    
Duration of delivery (hours)     
<1 3/13 23.1 1.0 Reference
1–5 13/75 17.3 0.71 (0.17–2.97)
6–10 7/47 14.9 0.60 (0.13–2.83)
>10 3/8 37.5 2.10 (0.28–15.57)
Chi-square p-value 0.46    
Marital status     
Married or Cohabiting 25/136 18.4 1.0 Reference
Single or Separated 1/7 14.3 0.78 (0.09–7.10)
Chi-square p-value 0.78    
Age at first intercourse     
≤ 17 9/42 21.4 1.0 Reference
18–19 7/35 20.0 0.89 (0.28–2.79)
≥ 20 6/37 16.2 0.67 (0.21–2.20)
Unknown 4/29    
Chi-square p-value 0.84    
Number of previous pregnancies     
0 9/46 19.6 1.0 Reference
1 8/47 17.0 0.89 (0.31–2.61)
2 5/34 14.7 0.79 (0.22–2.79)
≥ 3 4/16 25.0 1.69 (0.35–8.29)
Chi-square p-value 0.83    
Lifetime no. of sexual partners     
1 9/44 20.5 1.0 Reference
2–4 8/39 20.5 1.01 (0.35–2.94)
≥ 5 5/31 16.1 0.76 (0.23–2.57)
Unknown 4/29    
Chi-square p-value 0.87    
Previous history of STD     
No 15/92 16.3 1.0 Reference
Yes 5/17 29.4 2.19 (0.67–7.16)
Unknown 6/34    
Chi-square p-value 0.20    
Hormonal contraceptive use     
Never 10/26 38.5 1.0 Reference
Ever 12/88 13.6 0.24 (0.09–0.67)
Unknown 4/29    
Chi-square p-value 0.005    
Tobacco smoking status     
Never smoker 7/33 21.2 1.0 Reference
Ex-smoker 5/20 25.0 1.21 (0.32–4.52)
Current smoker 10/66 15.2 0.65 (0.22–1.96)
Unknown 4/24    
Chi-square p-value 0.55    
Cytology results at pregnancy     
Normal-ASCUS 21/121 17.4 1.0 Reference
LSIL-HSIL 3/17 17.6 1.04 (0.27–3.98)
Unknown 2/5    
Chi-square p-value 0.98    
Mother's HPV status at pregnancy     
Negative 13/77 16.9 1.0 Reference
Positive 13/66 19.7 1.25 (0.53–2.94)
Chi-square p-value 0.66    
Mother's HPV status at post-partum visit     
Negative 12/93 12.9 1.0 Reference
Positive 8/25 32.0 3.22 (1.14–9.10)
Unknown 6/25    
Chi-square p-value 0.02    
Mother's HPV status at pregnancy and/or post-partum visit     
Negative at both visits 10/65 15.4 1.0 Reference
Positive at either visit 7/43 16.3 1.09 (0.38–3.14)
Positive at both visits 7/24 29.2 2.33 (0.76–7.10)
Unknown 2/11    
Chi-square p-value 0.30    
  1. Models were adjusted by age group (≤ 28, 29–33, ≥ 34). No association was found with fetal stress at delivery, parity, duration and intensity of smoking, child's sex, no. of sex partners before or after 20 years of age or history of genital warts.