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Table 2 Risk factors associated with TB diagnosis

From: Risk and prognostic significance of tuberculosis in patients from The TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database

      Univariate Multivariate
  No. of patients Follow up (years) No. of events Rate HR p HR (95% CI) p-value
Total 3279 6815 135 1.98     
Sex
Male 2307 4883 100 2.05     
Female 972 1932 35 1.81 0.88 0.510 0.77 (0.52, 1.14) 0.198
Age at entry of TAHOD (years)
< = 30 1103 2203 56 2.54     
31~40 1401 2944 60 2.04 0.81 0.249 0.80 (0.56, 1.16) 0.237
41+ 775 1668 19 1.14 0.45 0.003 0.47 (0.28, 0.79) 0.005
Reported mode of infection
Heterosexual contact 2288 4896 102 2.08     
Homosexual contact 614 1243 16 1.29 0.62 0.074 1.29 (0.74, 2.23) 0.367
Injecting drug use 132 260 11 4.23 2.03 0.026 1.03 (0.54, 1.97) 0.917
Blood products 120 197 0 0.00 --- --- --- ---
Other/unknown 125 219 6 2.74 1.29 0.544 0.94 (0.41, 2.15) 0.877
CDC classification for HIV infection *
Category A 1747 3497 48 1.37     
Category B 622 1158 39 3.37 2.42 <0.001 1.33 (0.86, 2.05) 0.203
Category C 1020 2160 48 2.22 1.62 0.017 1.37 (0.89, 2.10) 0.150
CD4 count (cells/μL) *
< = 50 313 251 27 10.74     
51–100 312 222 15 6.74 0.64 0.162 0.69 (0.36, 1.29) 0.243
101–200 928 842 30 3.56 0.34 <0.001 0.41 (0.24, 0.69) 0.001
201–300 1224 1250 23 1.84 0.17 <0.001 0.21 (0.12, 0.37) <0.001
301+ 2225 4197 30 0.71 0.07 <0.001 0.08 (0.05, 0.14) <0.001
Not tested 68 53 10 18.98 1.83 0.106 1.02 (0.48, 2.15) 0.969
Prior TB diagnosis
No 2562 5254 94 1.79     
Yes 717 1561 41 2.63 1.47 0.038 1.08 (0.74, 1.59) 0.684
Antiretroviral treatment *
No treatment 830 985 40 4.06     
Treated, 0~90 days 453 83 14 16.91 4.01 <0.001 2.52 (1.31, 4.84) 0.006
Treated, 91–180 days 674 147 9 6.11 1.45 0.328 0.96 (0.45, 2.04) 0.909
Treated, 181–360 days 1017 414 5 1.21 0.30 0.013 0.24 (0.09, 0.62) 0.003
Treated 361+ days 2452 5186 57 1.29 0.30 <0.001 0.40 (0.26, 0.61) <0.001
Country of TB burden
High 1990 3644 115 3.16     
Low/intermediate 1289 3171 20 0.63 0.21 <0.001 0.28 (0.17, 0.45) <0.001
  1. Rate: per 100 person years. HR: hazard ratio. CI: confidence interval.
  2. * Time dependent variable, patients can contribute person time to more than one category thus the sum of the categories may be more than the total number of patients.