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Table 3 Factors associated with herpes simplex virus type-2 seropositivity in the bivariate analysis among the HIV-negative high-risk MSM that participated in the cross-sectional study.

From: Seroprevalence and factors associated with herpes simplex virus type 2 among HIV-negative high-risk men who have sex with men from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic PR 95%CI p-value
Age    
≤ 26 1.00   
> 26 1.54 1.24–1.92 < 0.001
Race    
White 1.00   
Non-white 1.36 1.09–1.70 0.005
Educational level    
≤ 8 years 1.16 0.93–1.45 0.16
> 8 years 1.00   
Working    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.07 0.84–1.35 0.553
Living with a partner    
Yes 1.41 1.14–1.37 0.001
No 1.00   
Marital status    
Not married 1.00   
Married 1.05 0.96–1.15 0.264
Sexual orientation    
Homosexual 1.00   
Bisexual 1.04 0.83–1.29 0.708
Age at first sexual intercourse    
≤ 15 years 1.21 0.94–1.56 0.122
> 15 years 1.00   
Age at first sexual intercourse with man    
≤ 15 years 1.28 1.00–1.63 0.045
> 15 years 1.00   
Age at first sexual intercourse with woman    
≤ 15 years 1.05 0.82–1.33 0.683
> 15 years 1.00   
First sexual intercourse with    
Man 1.05 0.86–1.39 0.448
Woman 1.00   
Exchange of sex for money    
Never 1.00   
Sometimes 1.09 0.88–1.35 0.407
Sex with a woman    
Never 1.00   
Sometimes 1.08 0.85–1.37 0.499
Sex with a woman in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.02 0.82–1.28 0.82
Occasional male partner in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.1 0.87–1.39 0.394
Stable male partner in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.27 1.02–1.60 0.032
Unprotected anal sex with stable male partner in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.2 0.97–1.49 0.088
Unprotected anal sex with occasional male partner in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 0.86 0.67–1.10 0.236
Unprotected vaginal sex with stable female partner in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.17 0.90–1.51 0.223
Unprotected anal sex with stable female partner in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.46 1.11–1.93 0.006
Unprotected vaginal sex with occasional female partner in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 0.83 0.57–1.19 0.313
Unprotected anal sex with occasional female partner in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 0.7 0.43–1.12 0.142
Alcohol use during sexual encounter in the past 6 months    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.21 0.97–1.52 0.085
Active syphilis*    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.3 0.94–1.79 0.107
Positive serology for syphilis*    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.75 1.43–2.15 < 0.001
Hepatitis B**    
No 1.00   
Yes 1.65 1.33–2.05 < 0.001
  1. * Active syphilis implies that the antibody titer with the VDRL test was ≥ 1/8 and the TPHA was positive, while positive serology for syphilis implies that the VDRL test was not reactive or < 1/8 and TPHA was positive.
  2. ** Positive serology for hepatitis B was assessed by the detection of antibodies to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBC) indicating previous infection.