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Table 3 The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the risk factors.

From: Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak

Risk factors that were present Presented within the first 2 days of febrile illness Presented on the 3rd or later day of febrile illness
  Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV
Both peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C and history of lethargy 28% (48/174)
[23–33%]
89% (125/140)
[86–92%]
76% (48/63)
[71–81%]
50%
(125/251)
[44–56%]
22%
(17/76)
[15–29%]
89% (41/46)
[83–95%]
77% (17/22)
[70–84%]
41%
(41/100)
[32–50%]
Peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C &/or history of lethargy 86% (150/174)
[82–90%]
43% (60/140)
[38–48%]
65% (150/230)
[60–70%]
71%
(60/84)
[66–76%]
75%
(57/76)
[67–83%]
59% (27/46)
[50–68%]
75% (57/76)
[67–83%]
59%
(27/46)
[50–68%]
  1. (%, proportion, [95% confidence interval]) in predicting CSF pleocytosis in the 436 children with suspected CNS involvement seen in the 2006 outbreak
  2. Note:
  3. CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid
  4. CNS: Central nervous system
  5. Sensitivity = The proportion of children with CSF pleocytosis that are correctly identified by the presence of the risk factors
  6. Specificity = The proportion of children without CSF pleocytosis that are correctly identified by the absence of the risk factors
  7. Positive predictive value (PPV) = The proportion of individuals with the risk factors that have CSF pleocytosis
  8. Negative predictive value (NPV) = The proportion of individuals without the risk factors that do not have CSF pleocytosis