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Table 2 The number and type of the risk factors that were present in the children with HFMD seen in the 2000/3 and 2006 outbreaks

From: Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak

Risk factors that were present First phase of study (2000/3) Second phase of study (2006)
  HFMD-CNS (N = 102) HFMD-Non-CNS (N = 83) Mild HFMD
(N = 540)
HFMD-CNS
(N = 250)
HFMD-Non-CNS (N = 186) Mild HFMD
(N = 294)
No. of patients with none of the 3 risk factor 2 9 352 11 52 208
Peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C only 1 8 7 29 32 34
History of lethargy only 5 15 27 16 11 17
Total duration of fever ≥ 3 only 9 15 122 32 35 30
No. of patients with 1 risk factor 15 38 156 77 78 81
Peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C plus history of lethargy 2 3 1 11 7 2
Peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C plus total duration of fever ≥ 3 days 25 15 8 76 31 3
Total duration of fever ≥ 3 days plus history of lethargy 26 12 19 21 5 0
No. of patients with 2 risk factors 53 30 28 108 43 5
No. of patients with 3 risk factors (Peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C plus total duration of fever ≥ 3 days plus history of lethargy) 32 6 4 54 13 0
  1. Note:
  2. HFMD: Hand, foot, and mouth disease
  3. HFMD-CNS: Hand, foot, and mouth disease with central nervous system complication
  4. HFMD-Non-CNS: Severe HFMD without central nervous system involvement