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Table 1 Risk factors that were significantly associated with CSF pleocytosis in children with HFMD in the first phase of the study (2000 to 2003).

From: Identification and validation of clinical predictors for the risk of neurological involvement in children with hand, foot, and mouth disease in Sarawak

Risk factors p value Odds ratio 95% CI
Total duration of fever ≥ 3 days < 0.0001 6.52 2.83 – 14.99
Peak temperature ≥ 38.5°C 0.0192 2.27 1.14 – 4.51
History of lethargy 0.001 3.18 1.60 – 6.35
  1. Note: The Hosmer-Lemeshow statistics indicated a non-significance of lack of fit (χ2 = 2.163, p = 0.904).
  2. CSF: Cerebrospinal fluid
  3. HFMD: Hand, foot, and mouth disease