Skip to main content

Table 3 Associations Between Acute Environmental Exposures and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease by Case-Crossover Analysis.

From: Let the sun shine in: effects of ultraviolet radiation on invasive pneumococcal disease risk in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

  Incubation Period (1-3 Days Prior to Case Occurrence) Prior to Incubation Period (4-6 Days Prior to Case Occurrence)
Exposure OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Meteorological       
   Cooling Degree-Days (°C) 0.878 0.624-1.236 0.456 0.926 0.676-1.270 0.635
   Maximum Temperature (°C) 1.036 0.855-1.256 0.717 0.997 0.822-1.209 0.974
   Minimum Temperature (°C) 0.994 0.820-1.204 0.948 1.039 0.858-1.258 0.694
   Atmospheric Pressure (kPa) 1.026 0.848-1.241 0.794 1.013 0.834-1.230 0.895
   Precipitation (mm) 0.954 0.783-1.162 0.6400 0.897 0.731-1.101 0.300
   Relative Humidity (%) 1.038 0.844-1.275 0.725 0.989 0.804-1.217 0.916
   UV Index 1.148 0.944-1.396 0.168 1.061 0.874-1.289 0.548
   Average Wind Speed (km/h) 0.900 0.737-1.098 0.298 1.045 0.851-1.283 0.6739
Air Quality       
   Sulphur Oxides (ppm) 0.747 0.603-0.925 0.007 1.425 0.952-1.425 0.138
   Oxides of Nitrogen (ppm) 0.918 0.735-1.147 0.452 1.144 0.930-1.406 0.203
   Carbon Monoxide (ppm) 0.925 0.751-1.139 0.461 0.996 0.809-1.227 0.971
   PM10 (μg/m3) 0.215 0.732-3.999 0.215 1.199 0.523-2.750 0.668
   Ozone (ppm) 1.018 0.830-1.249 0.861 0.904 0.730-1.118 0.351
  1. NOTE: OR, odds ratio; ppm, parts per million; kPa, kilopascals; PM10, particulates 10 micrometers or less in diameter. Presented odds ratios are those associated with upper tertile of exposures during incubation period. No significant associations were detected in analyses using raw exposure data.