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Table 2 Incidence of clinical symptoms in endemic and non-endemic regions and their association with urinary tract pathology as determined by ultrasound examination.

From: A comparison of urinary tract pathology and morbidity in adult populations from endemic and non-endemic zones for urinary schistosomiasis on Unguja Island, Zanzibar

Variable   Association with living in the South or North Association with presence of urinary tract pathology (as detected on ultrasound)
   S N Risk ratio 95% CI Pvalue No yes Risk ratio 95% CI Pvalue
Breathlessness No 81 120 1.26 0.79-2.04 0.4 177 21 1.10 0.54-2.03 0.7
  Yes 20 40     52 7    
Oedema No 93 153 0.55 0.21-1.43 0.2 217 25 2.04 0.63-6.08 0.3
  Yes 8 7     12 3    
Pain on micturating No 88 112 2.33 1.36-4.10 0.002 186 10 3.42 2.25-4.91 9 × 10-8
  Yes 13 48     43 18    
Frequency No 90 141 1.09 0.55-2.18 0.8 205 22 2.04 0.90-4.26 0.1
  Yes 11 19     24 6    
Urgency No 91 110 3.16 1.72-5.94 0.00008 188 9 3.79 2.52-5.41 0.00007
  Yes 10 50     41 19    
Loin pain No 68 84 1.45 1.06-2.03 0.02 133 17 0.94 0.55-1.42 0.8
  Yes 33 76     96 11    
Tired by midday No 81 97 2.01 1.30-3.18 0.001 162 15 1.55 0.93-2.35 0.1
  Yes 19 60     65 12    
Self perceived frothy urine No 94 133 2.43 1.14-5.33 0.02 203 20 2.52 1.23-4.74 0.02
  Yes 7 27     26 8    
Self perceived haematuria No 95 122 4.00 1.82-9,01 0.001 198 15 3.43 1.98-5.94 0.0002
  Yes 6 38     31 13