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Table 3 Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for multilevel logistic regression models

From: Inequitable childhood immunization uptake in Nigeria: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual determinants

Variables Model 0
(Empty model)
Model 1
(Child-level variables)
Model 2
(Mother-level variables)
Model 3
(Community-level variables)
  OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI) OR (95% CI)
Fixed effects     
Individual characteristics     
Sex of child     
   Female   1.02 (0.85-1.22) 1.01 (0.83-1.22) 1.00 (0.80-1.26)
   Male   1 1 1
Birth order/birth interval     
   First birth (order 1)   1.03 (0.79-1.34) 0.98 (0.72-1.33) 0.99 (0.69-1.41)
   Order 2-4 & <24 months   1.00 (0.73-1.38) 1.03 (0.73-1.44) 0.89 (0.62-1.31)
   Order 2-4 & 24-47 months   1 1 1
   Order 2-4 & 48+ months   0.78 (0.52-1.17) 0.66 (0.43-1.01) 0.65 (0.39-1.07)
   Order 5+ & < 24 months   0.51 (0.33-0.79)* 0.54 (0.33-0.89) 0.61 (0.34-1.09)
   Order 5+ & 24-47 months   0.85 (0.65-1.11) 0.84 (0.60-1.18) 0.87 (0.59-1.30)
   Order 5+ & 48+ months   0.98 (0.67-1.42) 0.84 (0.54-1.32) 0.70 (0.41-1.21)
Mother's age     
   15-18    0.55 (0.27-1.11) 0.45 (0.19-1.10)
   19-23    0.99 (0.73-1.36) 0.89 (0.62-1.29)
   24-28    1 1
   29-33    0.98 (0.72-1.32) 0.81 (0.57-1.16)
   ≥ 34    1.33 (0.95-1.85) 1.33 (0.91-1.94)
Marital status     
   Single    1.18 (0.52-2.66) 0.92 (0.35-2.40)
   Currently married    0.89 (0.53-1.49) 0.67 (0.37-1.19)
   Formerly married    1 1
Ethnicity     
   Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri    1 1
   Igbo    1.66 (1.15-2.41) 2.47 (1.28-4.76)
   Yoruba    1.90 (1.29-2.81) 1.47 (0.78-2.80)
   Others    1.68 (1.27-2.23) 1.47 (0.96-2.25)
Mothers' education     
   No education    0.85 (0.62-1.16) 0.85 (0.58-1.25)
   Primary    1.05 (0.79-1.39) 1.04 (0.74-1.48)
   Secondary or higher    1 1
Mothers' occupation     
   Prof./Tech./Manag.    1 1
Clerical, sales, services, skilled
manual
   0.62 (0.40-0.96) 0.56 (0.34-0.93)
   Agric. self., Agric. employee, household & domestic, unskilled manual    0.81 (0.49-1.33) 0.88 (0.49-1.60)
   Not working    0.68 (0.43-1.08) 0.68 (0.40-1.16)
Wealth index     
   Poorest    0.44 (0.29-0.65) 0.35 (0.21-0.59)
   Poorer    0.49 (0.34-0.71) 0.47 (0.27-0.81)
   Middle    0.66 (0.47-0.93) 0.64 (0.42-0.97)
   Richer    0.63 (0.46-0.87) 0.57 (0.39-0.84)
   Richest    1 1
Community characteristics     
Community mother's education     
   Low     0.76 (0.55-1.06)
   Middle     1
   High     1.02 (0.73-1.41)
Community hospital delivery     
   Low     0.62 (0.40-0.94)
   Middle     1
   High     1.12 (0.75-1.68)
Community prenatal care by doctor     
   Low     1.20 (0.79-1.84)
   High     1
Region of residence     
   North Central     1.15 (0.69-1.91)
   North East     0.90 (0.48-1.70)
   North West     0.83 (0.42-1.67)
   South East     0.36 (0.18-0.73)
   South South     0.48 (0.26-0.87)
   South West     1
Random effects Empty Child-level Mother-level Community-level
Community-level     
Variance (SE) 0.393 (0.119)** 0.567 (0.189)** 0.210 (0.112) 0.272 (0.133)*
VPC (%) 9.7 13.6 4.9 13.9
Explained variation (PVC) (%) Reference 44.3 63 -29.5
Mother-level     
Variance (SE) 0.382 (0.193)* 0.296 (0.145)* 0.790 (0.216)* 0.576 (0.241)*
VPC (%) 9.4 7.1 18.4 13.9
Explained variation (PVC) (%) Reference 22.5 -170 27
Model fit statistics     
DIC 3341 3337 3158 2269
  1. Note: Model 0 contained no variables; Model 1 included child-level characteristics; Model 2 adjusted for mother-level characteristics; Model 3 additionally adjusted for community-level characteristics.
  2. Abbreviations: VPC = Variance partition coefficient; DIC = Deviance information criterion; SE = Standard error: OR = Odds ratio; CI = Confidence Interval.
  3. Data source: 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey
  4. *p < .05; **p < .01; ***p < .001
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