Skip to main content

Table 2 Results of univariate and multivariate analysis of the ecological and climatic covariates (SI 1) against Kenya PfPR2-10 data of sample size ≥50 individuals.

From: The risks of malaria infection in Kenya in 2009

  PfPR2-10
  Number of survey locations Mean (median) PfPR2-10, Chi2 (P-value) Univariate regression*: Odds Ratio (95% CI), P-value Multivariate regression*: Odds Ratio (95% CI), P-value
Categorical covariates     
Urban     
   Rural 1636 27.6 (21.9) Ref Ref
   Urban 458 15.4 (11.9) 0.48 (0.34, 0.66), <0.001 0.50 (0.36, 0.70), <0.001
   3300, <0.001   
Maximum temperature (Degrees Celsius)     
   ≤25 214 7.7 (2.3) 0.20 (0.10, 0.41), <0.001 0.25 (0.12, 0.52), <0.001
   25-30 1628 29.8 (25.9) Ref Ref
   >30 252 16.2 (9.2) 0.46 (0.35, 0.60), <0.001 0.61 (0.44, 0.85), 0.003
   4700.0, <0.001   
Minimum temperature (Degrees Celsius)     
   <16 928 23.5 (17.1) 0.81 (0.66, 0.97), <0.036  
   ≥16 1166 27.6 (21.9) Ref  
   754.7, <0.001   
Sets of 3 consecutive months in an average year with precipitation >60 mm     
   0 1398 13.7 (9.0) 0.37 (0.26, 0.51), <0.001 0.53 (0.35, 0.83), 0.005
   1-3 333 19.6 (12.4) 0.56 (0.42, 0.74), <0.001 0.63 (0.46, 0.85), 0.003
   >3 363 30.3 (26.1) Ref Ref
   8200.0, <0.001   
Enhanced vegetation index     
   > 0.3 1534 16.9 (11.3) Ref Ref
   ≤0.3 560 29.0 (24.4) 0.50 (0.39, 0.64), <0.001 0.78 (0.57, 1.06), 0.114
   3300.1, <0.001   
Altitude (m)     
   0-500 689 22.2 (13.0) 0.59 (0.47, 0.74), <0.001  
   >500-1500 860 32.6 (29.1) Ref  
   >1500 545 19.4 (13.0) 0.50 (0.39, 0.64), <0.001  
   4100.2, <0.001   
Distance (km) to main water bodies     
   ≤12 mean distance 1306 28.6 (23.5) Ref  
   >12 mean distance 788 21.1 (14.5) 0.67 (0.54, 0.82), <0.001 0.62(0.49, 0.77), <0.001
   3300, <0.001   
  1. *The category with the highest median PfPR2-10 is used as the reference class. Therefore the odds ratios are expected to be below 1.00 for all covariates.