Skip to main content

Table 1 Behavioural change and risk perceptions in response to the H1N1 pandemic

From: Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

Variables Malaysia Europe Differences between
regions (x 2 value)
Total
  No (%) No (%)   N (%)
Relevant behaviours     
Public transport use as a result of swine flu     
   Less than usual 84 (48) 32 (22) 21.91** 116 (36)
   The same or more 93 (53) 112 (78)   204 (64)
Cancellation/delaying of flights     
   Yes 99 (56) 25 (17) 49.20** 124 (39)
   No 79 (44) 119 (83)   188 (61)
Purchased goods (e.g. face masks)     
   Yes 14 (8) 11 (7) 0.14 25 (8)
   No 166 (92) 137 (93)   303 (92)
Intend to purchase goods     
   Yes 74 (41) 22 (15) 27.03** 96 (29)
   No 106 (59) 126 (85)   232 (71)
Risk groups     
Pig farmers     
   More risk than me 157 (88) 72 (49) 68.03** 229 (70)
   Same risk as me 16 (9) 74 (50)   90 (28)
   Less risk than me 5 (3) 2 (1)   7 (2)
General farmers     
   More risk 61 (35) 29 (20) 11.44** 90 (28)
   Same risk 108 (61) 116 (78)   224 (69)
   Less risk 8 (5) 3 (2)   11 (3)
The elderly     
   More risk 87 (49) 96 (65) 8.27* 183 (57)
   Same risk 76 (43) 42 (28)   118 (36)
   Less risk 13 (7) 10 (7)   23 (7)
Homeless     
   More risk 96 (55) 74 (50) 10.23** 170 (53)
   Same risk 67 (38) 73 (49)   140 (43)
   Less risk 12 (7) 1 (1)   13 (4)
Homosexuals     
   More risk 56 (32) 11 (8) 31.82** 67 (21)
   Same risk 115 (65) 134 (92)   249 (77)
   Less risk 5 (3) 1 (1)   6 (2)
Prostitutes     
   More risk 106 (60) 64 (44) 12.10** 170 (53)
   Same risk 66 (37) 82 (56)   148 (46)
   Less risk 5 (3) 1 (1)   6 (2)
Those already with a disease and with weakened immunity     
   More risk 156 (88) 127 (86) 3.49* 283 (87)
   Same risk 13 (7) 18 (12)   31 (10)
   Less risk 8 (5) 3 (2)   11 (3)
Personal Anxieties     
Concern about getting flu     
   Very concerned 75 (42) 8 (5) 91.67** 83 (26)
   Somewhat concerned 52 (29) 30 (20)   82 (25)
   Only a little concerned 39 (22) 48 (33)   87 (27)
   Not at all concerned 12 (7) 61 (42)   73 (23)
Control over whether infected     
   Great deal 35 (20) 19 (13) 2.83 54 (16)
   Little 97 (55) 90 (61)   187 (57)
   None 46 (26) 38 (26)   84 (26)
Contacted friends to discuss threat     
   Yes 33 (19) 90 (63) 66.56** 123 (39)
   No 144 (81) 52 (37)   196 (61)
Contacted family to discuss threat     
   Yes     
   No 49 (28) 31 (22) 1.54 80 (25)
  119 (73) 113 (79)   242 (75)
  1. Note
  2. Asterisks indicate significant regional differences (Europe vs. Asia) using Pearson chi-square statistic * p < .05; ** p < .01. We reran these analyses using logistic regressions controlling for age and sex, with similar results to the chi-square analyses. Further details of these findings are available from the first author.
  3. Percentages are rounded so may not all always add to 100. Ns range from 312-328 due to some missing data from Malaysia.