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Table 3 Multivariable analysis for risk factors for ocular manifestations of HIV, among patients prior to commencing ART (n = 135).

From: Prevalence of HIV-associated ophthalmic disease among patients enrolling for antiretroviral treatment in India: A cross-sectional study

Variable Odds ratio (OR) for ocular manifestation of HIV 95% CI P-value
Age group (years)    
   16-30 1 - 0.2
   31-35 0.1 0.02-0.7  
   36-40 0.6 0.1-2.5  
   41-45 0.7 0.1-3.3  
   >46 0.6 0.1-3.2  
Sex    
   Male 1 - 0.67
   Female 1.3 0.4-5.0  
CD4 count (cells/μL)    
   >201 1 - 0.02
   101-200 1.3 0.3-5.4  
   0-100 6.3 1.5-26.3  
WHO clinical stage    
   1 or 2 1 - 0.001
   3 or 4 9.4 2.4-37.2  
Visual acuity    
   Normal 1 - 0.14
   Visual impairment/blind 3.1 0.7-14.0  
Ocular symptoms    
   No 1 - 0.95
   Yes 1.1 0.1-7.8  
Duration of disease (months)    
   ≤ 12    
   13-24 1 - 0.8
   25-60 0.9 0.2-3.4  
   >60 0.5 0.1-2.2  
  0.5 0.1-3.0