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Table 3 Proportion colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and bivariate predictors of colonization adjusted for clustering by community

From: Epidemiology and risk factors for Staphylococcus aureuscolonization in children in the post-PCV7 era

  % colonized Bivariate OR (95% CI) P-value
Year of Swab (N = 1,968)    0.43
   2003–04 15.3% 1.0  
   2006–07 14.1% 0.90 (0.70–1.17)  
Age group (N = 1,968)    <0.001
   <6 months 16.8% 0.59 (0.35–1.00)  
   6–<12 months 10.7% 0.36 (0.23–0.55)  
   1–<2 years 9.4% 0.31 (0.21–0.46)  
   2–<3 years 12.0% 0.40 (0.26–0.63)  
   3–<4 years 13.9% 0.47 (0.30–0.74)  
   4–<5 years 18.6% 0.68 (0.45–1.03)  
   ≥5 years 25.4% 1.0  
Female (N = 1,968) 13.7% vs. 15.7% 0.85 (0.66–1.09) 0.20
Race/ethnicity (N = 1,872)    0.85
   White non-Hispanic 14.3% 1.0  
   Black non-Hispanic 16.3% 1.15 (0.64–2.08)  
   Hispanic 15.6% 1.08 (0.65–1.80)  
   Other 12.1% 0.81 (0.44–1.51)  
Median household income in community (N = 1,869)    0.76
   <$40,000 12.9% 0.83 (0.54–1.27)  
   $40,000–$54,999 15.3% 1.01 (0.70–1.45)  
   $55,000–$69,999 14.1% 0.92 (0.62–1.35)  
   ≥$70,000 15.4% 1.0  
% community members with <high school educational level (N = 1,869)    0.74
   <5% 16.2% 1.10 (0.74–1.64)  
   5–<10% 13.4% 0.88 (0.61–1.28)  
   10–<15% 13.8% 0.92 (0.66–1.29)  
   ≥15% 15.0% 1.0  
Ever breastfed (N = 1,900) 14.5% vs. 14.6% 0.99 (0.75–1.30) 0.94
Childcare or school for ≥4 hrs (N = 1,857) 15.7% vs. 13.1% 1.24 (0.95–1.60) 0.11
Smokers in home (N = 1,784) 15.5% vs. 13.8% 1.16 (0.83–1.60) 0.39
Family member works in hospital or long-term care facility (N = 1,888) 11.9% vs. 15.0% 0.76 (0.53–1.09) 0.14
Antibiotics in past 2 months (N = 1,945)    <0.001
   Amoxicillin-clavulanate/cephalosporins/mupirocin/TMP-SMX 8.0% 0.42 (0.25–0.71)  
   Clindamycin/macrolides 9.8% 0.51 (0.24–1.08)  
   Amoxicillin/penicillin 10.5% 0.57 (0.39–0.83)  
   No antibiotics 17.1% 1.0  
Antibiotics in past 6 months for a skin infection (N = 1,950) 10.3% vs. 14.7% 0.67 (0.20–2.22) 0.51
History of chronic illness (N = 1,950)    
   Asthma/RAD (N = 1,950) 17.6% vs. 14.3% 1.29 (0.88–1.91) 0.20
   Skin condition (N = 974) 17.0% vs. 13.9% 1.27 (0.58–2.78) 0.55
Diagnosis on day of visit (N = 1,950)    
   Asthma/RAD 20.6% vs. 14.3% 1.57 (0.88–2.81) 0.13
   Rash 21.5% vs. 14.4% 1.66 (0.91–3.03) 0.10
   Otitis media 12.0% vs. 15.0% 0.77 (0.52–1.14) 0.19
   Respiratory tract infection 16.5% vs. 14.0% 1.20 (0.90–1.59) 0.22
   Skin/soft tissue infection 7.1% vs. 14.7% 0.43 (0.06–3.29) 0.42
   Allergic rhinitis/seasonal allergies 7.7% vs. 14.7% 0.48 (0.06–3.70) 0.48
Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae (N = 1,964) 12.4% vs. 15.5% 0.78 (0.58–1.05) 0.10
Pneumococcal vaccination (N = 1,950)    0.08
   0 doses 19.6% 1.0  
   1 dose 17.7% 0.87 (0.52–1.47)  
   2 doses 13.9% 0.67 (0.39–1.14)  
   3+ doses 13.6% 0.64 (0.44–0.93)  
Influenza vaccination prior to visit (N = 1,950) 12.4% vs. 15.3% 0.78 (0.57–1.06) 0.11