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Table 2 Risk of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae infection (IPI) associated with selected underlying conditions, Finland, 1995–2002.

From: Invasive pneumococcal infections among persons with and without underlying medical conditions: Implications for prevention strategies

Underlying conditiona Number of IPI cases by age group (years) Population at risk (person years) Rate/100,000/year 95%CIb Case fatality proportion at day 7/28/90
  < 18 18–64 ≥ 65 All (%)     
  N = 733 N = 2216 N = 1408 N = 4357     
Chronic pulmonary diseasec 44 190 260 494 (11.3) 1,435,000 34.4 31.4–37.4 8/12/15
Cardiac failure 13 51 287 351 (8.1) 746,000 47.1 42.2–52.0 16/24/30
Diabetes mellitus 3 140 186 329 (7.5) 1,014,000 32.5 29.0–36.0 13/19/23
   Type 1 diabetesd 3 16 0 19 (0.4) 158,000 12.0 6.6–17.4 5/5/5
Immunodeficiency or rheumatic diseases 4 128 138 270 (6.2) 779,000 34.7 30.5–38.9 14/19/22
Alcohol-related diseases 0 241 10 251 (5.8) 1,117,000e 21.9f 19.1–24.6 21/28/33
Non-haematological malignancy         
   < 1 year since diagnosis 2 46 58 106 (2.4) 208,000 50.9 41.2–60.6 22/29/41
   < 5 years since diagnosis 13 92 139 244 (5.6) 730,000 33.4 29.2–37.6 16/24/33
Haematological malignancy         
   < 1 year since diagnosis 5 25 26 56 (1.3) 10,000 547.2 398.9–685.5 14/16/25
   < 5 years since diagnosis 23 68 72 163 (3.7) 38,000 434.5 367.8–501.2 10/13/21
Organ or bone marrow transplantation 5 26 3 34 (0.8) 21,000 163.7 108.7–218.7 3/6/9
Chronic renal failure 1 15 8 24 (0.6) 27,000 88.6 53.1–124.1 8/13/17
Chronic liver disease 0 15 5 20 (0.5) NAg NA NA 15/30/35
HIV infection 0 10 0 10 (0.2) 8,000 129.7 49.3–210.1 10/20/30
  1. aPatient may have more than one underlying condition; bCI, confidence interval; cchronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and/or bronchial asthma; ddiabetes mellitus diagnosed at age < 30 years and insulin treatment; eextrapolation based on 12 month-prevalence of persons with alcohol use disorders from a representative sample of Finland's adult (≥ 30 years) population [21]; fIPI cases with alcohol-related diseases aged ≥ 30 years (N = 245); gNA, not available