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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable associations for suboptimal viral load response (>= 400 copies/ml) at 12 months

From: Risk factors for poor virological outcome at 12 months in a workplace-based antiretroviral therapy programme in South Africa: A cohort study

   Total Viral load
>= 400 copies/
ml N (%)
Unadjusted
Odds ratio
95%
confidence
interval
P value* Adjusted
Odds ratio
95%
confidence
interval
P value*
Sex Male 914 258 (28) 1 - 0.31 1   0.52
  Female 39 14 (36) 1.42 0.73–2.78   1.38 0.53–3.61  
Age – grouped
(years)
<35 225 53 (24) 1   0.16 1   0.33
  35–39 199 51 (26) 1.12 0.72–1.74   1.50 0.83–2.71  
  40–44 227 70 (31) 1.45 0.95–2.20 Pt = 0.01 1.43 0.82–2.52  
  45–49 166 53 (32) 1.52 0.97–2.38   1.89 1.04–3.43  
  >= 50 136 45 (33) 1.60 1.00–2.57   1.50 0.77–2.93  
Site Site A 165 35 (21) 1 - <0.001 1   <0.001
  Site B 238 44 (18) 0.84 0.51–1.38   0.71 0.39–1.32  
  Site C 198 78 (39) 2.41 1.59–3.86   2.38 1.32–4.31  
  Site D 145 49 (34) 1.90 1.14–3.15   1.80 0.92–3.50  
  Site E 207 66 (32) 1.74 1.08–2.79   1.70 0.88–3.31  
WHO stage**
(n = 55 missing)
1–2 242 52 (21) 1 - 0.02 1   0.007
  3 415 131 (32) 1.69 1.16–2.44   2.08 1.28–3.34  
  4 241 66 (27) 1.38 0.91–2.09   2.03 1.14–3.62  
CD4 count at baseline
(× 106/l) (n = 45 Missing)
<= 50 126 37 (29) 1 - 0.5    
  51–100 136 46 (34) 1.23 0.73–2.07     
  101–200 332 95 (29) 0.96 0.61–1.51     
  201–350 273 70 (26) 0.83 0.52–1.33     
  > 350 41 13 (32) 1.12 0.52–2.39     
Viral load at baseline
(copies/ml) (n = 61 missing)
<= 10,000 179 36 (20) 1   0.02 1   <0.001
  10,001– 443 134 (30) 1.72 1.13–2.62   3.63 1.88–7.00  
  100,000 270 85 (31) 1.83 1.17–2.85   3.54 1.79–7.00  
  >100,000         
Weight (kg)
(n = 77 missing)
<= 50 54 22 (41) 1 - 0.02    
  51–60 285 90 (32) 0.67 0.37–1.22     
  61–70 349 83 (24) 0.45 0.25–0.82 Pt = 0.007    
  >70 185 46 (25) 0.48 0.25–0.91     
ART regimen COM/EFV 897 249 (28) 1 - 0.04    
  other 56 23 (41) 1.81 1.04–3.15     
<1 log decrease in viral
load at six weeks
(n = 198 missing)
No 669 157 (23) 1 - <0.001 1   <0.001
  Yes 86 40 (47) 2.84 1.79–4.49   4.71 2.56–8.68  
Self-reported adherence
at 6 weeks
(n = 73 missing)
100% 784 204 (26) 1 - <0.001 1   <0.001
  <100% 95 43 (45) 2.35 1.52–3.63   3.50 1.92–6.35  
  1. * P-value from likelihood ratio test; Pt = P-value for linear trend
  2. ** clinical staging of HIV disease (see methods for definition).
  3. WHO = World Health Organization; ART = antiretroviral therapy; COM = Combivir; EFV = Efavirenz