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Table 1 The prevalence of genital herpes and associated factors among pregnant women

From: HIV-1, HSV-2 and syphilis among pregnant women in a rural area of Tanzania: Prevalence and risk factors

Characteristics N (%) HSV-2 prevalence % (95% CI) Age-adjusted OR (95% CI) Multivariate analysis OR (95% CI)
Total 1296 20.7 (18.53–23.00)   
Clinic     
Basotu 242 (18.7) 7.0 (4.27 – 11.21) 1 1
Haydom 319 (24.6) 23.8 (19.33 – 28.86) 4.2 (2.41 – 7.31) * 4.2 (2.39 – 7.41) *
Muslur 192 (14.8) 32.8 (26.32 – 40.00) 6.5 (3.63 – 11.52) * 6.8 (3.76 – 12.27) *
Dangayda 113 (8.7) 32.9 (23.59 – 41.38) 6.0 (3.19 – 11.35) * 5.3 (2.78 – 10.16) *
Mwanga 249 (19.2) 20.1 (15.40 – 25.71) 3.3 (1.86 – 5.95) * 3.3 (1.84 – 6.02) *
Nduguti 181 (14.0) 14.4 (9.76 – 20.53) 2.2 (1.16 – 4.23) * 2.2 (1.15 – 4.24) *
Age groups (years)     
15–19 165 (12.7) 19.5 (13.91 – 26.58) 1  
20–24 417 (32.2) 19.4 (15.80 – 23.62) 1.0 (0.63 – 1.57) 0.8 (0.48 – 1.28)
25–29 349 (26.9) 17.4 (13.69 – 21.90) 0.9 (0.54 – 1.40) 0.7 (0.41 – 1.13)
30–34 224 (17.3) 24.5 (19.58 – 31.30) 1.3 (0.82 – 2.19) 0.9 (0.55 – 1.61)
≥35 141 (10.9) 27.7 (20.62 – 35.93) 1.6 (0.92 – 2.69) 1.0 (0.56 – 1.77)
Marital status     
Married 1183 (91.3) 20.9 (18.62 – 23.33) 1 __
Single/divorced/separated/widow 113(8.7) 18.6 (12.12 – 27.23) 1.1 (0.68 – 1.91)  
Education (years)     
None 349 (28.2) 20.9 (16.85 – 25.64) 1 __
1–6 years 174 (13.4) 17.8 (12.60 – 24.49) 0.8 (0.51 – 1.40)  
7 years or more 773 (59.7) 21.2 (18.42 – 24.30) 1.0 (0.74 – 1.9)  
a Polygamous relationship     
No 1024 (79.0) 17.5 (15.23–19.90) 1  
Yes 272 (21.0) 32.7 (27.24–38.69) 2.2 (1.63 – 3.01) * 2.2 (1.62 – 2.99) *
b Age at first pregnancy     
< 18 years 158 (14.0) 23.4 (17.21 – 30.94) 1  
≥ 18 years 974 (86.0) 20.4 (17.97 – 23.13) 1.2 (0.85–1.73) 1.2 (0.82 – 1.70)
Number of lifetime sexual partners     
One only 1231 (95.0) 18.2 (16.14 – 20.54) 1  
More than one 65 (5.0) 35.3 (24.36 – 47.90) 2.0 (1.21 – 3.46) * 1.8 (1.04 – 3.04)
Use of contraceptives other than condom     
No 1088 (84.0) 19.2 (16.93–21.71) 1 1
Yes 208 (16.0) 28.4 (22.45–35.09) 1.7 (1.20–2.37)* 1.7 (1.21–2.41) *
History of sexually transmitted infections     
No 1135 (87.6) 19.8 (17.56 – 22.29) 1  
Yes 161 (12.4) 27.0 (20.20 – 34.35) 1.5 (1.01 – 2.17) 1.3 (0.87–1.92)
Ever used condom     
No 1233 (95.1) 20.6(18.47 – 23.07) 1 __
Yes 63 (4.9) 20.6 (11.85 – 33.04) 1.1 (0.56 – 1.97)  
  1. aRelationship with a man having more than one female sexual partner regardless of marital status
  2. b Analysed for those aged 20 ≥ years at the time of survey
  3. Total HSV-2 positive (n = 268/1296)
  4. *P-values: < 0.01