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Table 2 Association between characteristics of infective endocarditis (IE) and cardiac mortality at 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after the admission in 243 episodes of IE in 226 patients who survived over 1 year after the initial episode of IE

From: Long-term outcome of infective endocarditis: A study on patients surviving over one year after the initial episode treated in a Finnish teaching hospital during 25 years

  Number of IE episodes in patients surviving 1 year Survival (%) at different points of follow-up p value
   2 years 5 years 10 years 15 years 20 years  
Cardiac mortality 243 3 10 16 25 29  
Gender        
   Male 174 2 9 15 26 31 0.801
   Female 69 6 11 20 24 24  
Age        
   18–64 years 172 1 5 11 22 26 0.002
   ≥ 65 years 71 10 21 32 32 32  
Affected valves        
   Aortic 85 4 9 18 24 29 0.416*
   Mitral valve 77 4 9 20 34 34  
   Tricuspid valve 12 0 0 0 NA NA  
   Two native valves 17 0 0 0 17 17  
   Prosthetic valve(s) 52 4 17 17 24 29  
Causative agents of IE        
   Staphylococcus aureus 53 2 4 4 4 4 0.032*
   Coagulase-negative staphylococci 22 10 20 30 30 30  
   Viridans streptococci 50 2 2 9 34 40  
   Enterococcus faecalis 18 17 17 25 63 63  
   Streptococcus pneumoniae 5 0 0 0 0 0  
   Other 22 0 0 16 16 28  
   Negative 73 1 17 22 25 25  
Predisposing cardiac condition        
   Acquired valvular disease 49 8 19 29 41 41 0.015*
   Prosthetic valves 55 4 16 16 23 28  
   Bicuspid aortic valve 26 0 0 0 0 0  
   Mitral valve prolapse 30 3 3 15 29 29  
   Congenital heart disease 8 0 0 38 38 NA  
   No underlying cardiac condition 75 1 6 12 27 27  
Echocardiogarphic findings        
   Major criteria        
Yes 158 3 7 14 22 25 0.013
No 85 4 15 22 32 36  
   Vegetation        0.007
Yes 139 4 6 12 22 22  
No 104 3 15 22 30 36  
Underlying conditions        
   Diabetes        
Yes 21 5 5 5 29 29 0.325
No 222 3 10 18 26 30  
   Dialysis        0.340
Yes 5 25 25 NA NA NA  
No 238 3 9 16 25 29  
   Collagen disease        0.160
Yes 14 7 24 49 49 49  
No 229 3 9 15 24 28  
   Malignancy        
Yes 11 10 10 40 NA NA 0.383
No 232 3 10 16 25 28  
Intravenous drug use        
Yes 19 0 0 NA NA NA 0.164
No 224 4 10 17 26 30  
Alcohol abuse        
Yes 22 9 15 15 25 NA 0.660
No 221 3 9 16 25 29  
Heart failure††        
Yes 108 6 15 23 28 31 0.110
No 135 2 5 11 23 27  
Neurological complications††        
Yes 60 3 11 18 27 27 0.930
No 183 3 9 16 25 30  
Peripheral emboli††        0.175
Yes 69 3 8 14 20 20  
No 174 3 10 17 27 32  
Early surgery (in-hospital)        
Yes 67 0 5 7 14 18 0.029
No 176 5 12 20 30 34  
Mode of treatment††        0.026
   Surgical 72 0 4 9 15 19  
   Conservative 171 5 12 20 30 34  
Indications for in-hospital surgery        
   Congestive heart failure 35 0 3 7 22 29 0.269*
   Valvular regurgitation without heart failure 18 0 6 6 6 6  
   Dehiscence of prosthetic valve without heart failure 8 0 13 13 13 13  
   Repeated emboli 3 0 0 0 0 0  
   Intractable infection 3 0 0 0 0 0  
Erythrocyte sedimentation‡,§        
   ≥ 50 mm/h 75 4 14 23 29 33 0.527
   < 50 mm/h 74 1 6 13 30 34  
White blood cell count‡,§S        
   ≥ 10 × 109/l 119 3 10 17 30 30 0.781
   < 10 × 109/l 98 4 9 17 24 31  
Serum C-reactive protein‡,¶        
   ≥ 100 mg/l 100 3 7 10 13 13 0.080
   < 100 mg/l 105 4 12 16 28 39  
Serum creatinine value‡,¶P        
   ≥ 100 μmol/l 76 5 12 24 42 60 0.001
   < 100 μmol/l 142 1 7 13 18 18  
  1. *p values for overall group differences; †NA = non-applicable, the follow-up did not reach the time point for any patient of the group; ††within 3 months of admission; ‡on admission; §data available for 149 episodes; §Sdata available for 217 episodes; ¶data available for 205 episodes; ¶¶ data available for 218 episodes