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Table 1 Association between characteristics of infective endocarditis (IE) and survival (global and in different subgroups) at 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years after the admission in 243 episodes of IE in 226 patients who survived over 1 year after the initial episode of IE

From: Long-term outcome of infective endocarditis: A study on patients surviving over one year after the initial episode treated in a Finnish teaching hospital during 25 years

  Number of IE episodes in patients surviving 1 year Survival (%) at different points of follow-up p value
   2 years 5 years 10 years 15 years 20 years  
Global survival 243 95 82 66 51 45  
Gender        
   Male 174 97 83 68 50 45 0.567
   Female 69 91 80 59 51 46  
Age        
   18–64 years 172 99 90 76 60 54 < 0.001
   ≥ 65 years 71 87 65 38 25 25  
Affected valves        
   Aortic 85 95 85 63 52 46 0.171*
   Mitral valve 77 95 80 58 40 40  
   Tricuspid valve 12 100 100 100 NA† NA  
   Two native valves 17 100 100 91 76 76  
   Prosthetic valve(s) 52 94 74 67 52 43  
Causative agents of IE        
   Staphylococcus aureus 53 98 86 77 57 57 0.183*
   Coagulase-negative staphylococci 22 86 58 41 41 41  
   Viridans streptococci 50 96 91 77 56 50  
   Enterococcus faecalis 18 83 83 67 28 28  
   Streptococcus pneumoniae 5 100 100 53 53 53  
   Other 22 95 91 66 60 30  
   Negative 73 99 78 61 46 46  
Predisposing cardiac condition        
   Acquired valvular disease 49 90 70 53 41 36 0.019
   Prosthetic valves 55 95 75 66 52 43  
   Bicuspid aortic valve 26 100 100 94 81 81  
   Mitral valve prolapse 30 97 93 74 62 62  
   Congenital heart disease 8 100 100 33 33 NA  
   No underlying cardiac condition 75 97 83 63 39 39  
Echocardiogarphic findings        
   Major criteria        
Yes 158 96 85 68 53 49 0.089
No 85 95 78 61 46 39  
   Vegetation        0.162
Yes 139 95 85 68 52 49  
No 104 96 80 62 49 41  
Underlying conditions        
   Diabetes        
Yes 21 95 95 77 58 29 0.307
No 222 95 81 64 49 45  
   Dialysis        
Yes 5 60 40 NA NA NA 0.018
No 238 96 83 66 51 46  
   Collagen disease        
Yes 14 93 68 24 24 24 0.026
No 229 96 83 68 52 46  
   Malignancy        
Yes 11 82 62 31 NA NA 0.004
No 232 96 83 67 53 47  
Intravenous drug use        
Yes 19 100 100 NA NA NA 0.049
No 224 95 81 64 50 44  
Alcohol abuse        
Yes 22 91 67 47 35 NA 0.029
No 221 96 84 68 53 47  
Heart failure††        0.047
Yes 108 93 75 55 46 44  
No 135 98 89 75 55 46  
Neurological complications††        
Yes 60 95 78 66 52 52 0.766
No 183 96 84 65 50 43  
Peripheral emboli††        
Yes 69 97 83 60 50 50 0.570
No 174 95 82 67 51 43  
Early surgery (in-hospital)        
Yes 67 99 89 82 76 73 < 0.001
No 176 94 80 59 41 34  
Mode of treatment††        
   Surgical 72 99 90 82 74 70 < 0.001
   Conservative 171 94 79 59 41 33  
Indications for in-hospital surgery        
   Congestive heart failure 35 97 85 72 61 55 0.002*
   Valvular regurgitation without heart failure 18 100 94 94 94 94  
   Dehiscence of prosthetic valve without heart failure 8 100 88 88 88 88  
   Repeated emboli 3 100 100 100 100 100  
   Intractable infection 3 100 100 100 100 100  
Erythrocyte sedimentation‡,§        
   ≥ 50 mm/h 75 93 76 55 40 34 0.018
   < 50 mm/h 74 97 89 77 56 53  
White blood cell count‡,§S        
   ≥ 10 × 109/l 119 97 83 63 41 41 0.142
   < 10 × 109/l 98 94 82 67 61 53  
Serum C-reactive protein‡       
   ≥ 100 mg/l 100 96 83 62 48 48 0.927
   < 100 mg/l 105 94 80 68 51 43  
Serum creatinine value‡¶¶        < 0.001
   ≥ 100 μmol/l 76 95 77 53 27 14  
   < 100 μmol/l 142 97 87 71 61 59  
  1. *p values for overall group differences; †NA = non-applicable, the follow-up did not reach the time point for any patient of the group; ††within 3 months of admission; ‡on admission; §data available for 149 episodes; §Sdata available for 217 episodes; ¶data available for 205 episodes; ¶¶ data available for 218 episodes