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Table 3 Risk factors for colonization by selected bacteria.

From: High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusin nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South Africa

Organism Odds ratio (95% CI) Bivariate p-value Multivariate logistic regression Wald p-values
Enterobacteriaceae     
   Age < 1 year 4.6 (2–11.1) 0.0004 4.4 (1.9–10.9) 0.0008
   Stage C disease 3.7 (1.6–8.6) 0.002 3.6 (1.5–8.6) 0.005
   Female 0.5 (0.23–1.19) 0.13   
   CDC Immunological Class 2 or 3 2 (0.7–6.9) 0.23   
   Weight for age-Z-score <-2 1.6 (0.7–3.5) 0.27   
No prior TMP-SMX at baseline 0.3 (0.03–1.3) 0.22   
Present and/or previous hospitalization 1.1 (0.4–3.7) 0.9   
S. aureus 1 (0.3–3.8) 1   
   Age < 1 year 1.2(0.6–2.4) 0.6   
   Stage C 0.1 (0.6–2.9) 0.4   
   Weight for age-Z-score <-2 2 (1–3.9) 0.051 1.7 (0.8–3.5) 0.11
CDC Immunological Class 2 or 3 3.7 (1.4–12.9) 0.007 3.4 (1.3–11.8) 0.029
Female 1.2 (0.63–2.4) 0.54   
No prior TMP-SMX at baseline 0.97 (0.42–2.1) 0.94   
Present and/or previous hospitalization 2.04 (0.8–6.3) 0.14   
S. pneumoniae     
   Age < 1 year 0.53 (0.2–1.1) 0.09   
   Stage C 0.51 (0.2–1.6) 0.13   
   Weight for age-Z-score <-2 0.71 (0.4–1.4) 0.31   
CDC Immunological Class 2 or 3 0.8 (0.4–1.6) 0.5   
Female 0.97 (0.5–1.9) 0.92   
No prior TMP-SMX at baseline 1.4 (0.4–5.3) 0.67   
Present and/or previous hospitalization 0.64 (0.29–1.46) 0.28   
Gram-negative respiratory organisms     
   Age < 1 year 0.53 (0.2–0.98) 0.055 0.59 (0.24–1.33) 0.22
   Stage C 0.8 (0.3–1.7) 0.51   
   Weight for age-Z-score <-2 0.46 (0–0.9) 0.029 0.55 (0.25–1.2) 0.14
CDC Immunological Class 2 or 3 0.32 (0.16–0.66) 0.002 0.33 (0.15–0.71) 0.005
Female 1.4 (0.75–2.8) 0.28   
No prior TMP-SMX at baseline 5.1 (1.4–22.1) 0.058 0.33 (0.09–0.94) 0.057
Present and/or previous hospitalization 0.5 (0.23–1.12) 0.094 0.63 (0.27–1.54) 0.3
  1. Multivariate logistic regression only where p ≤ 0.1 on univariate analyses
  2. N = 203
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