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Table 5 Odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for HIV and syphilis seropositivity, and positive HBsAg status according to the sexual behavioural characteristics among 1366 prisoners in Ghana on univariate analysis

From: Correlates of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among prison inmates and officers in Ghana: A national multicenter study

Sexual and behavioural characteristic* No. of inmates (%) HIV seropositive HBV seropositive Syphilis seropositive
   No. (%) OR (95% CI)# No. (%) OR (95% CI)# No. (%) OR (95% CI)#
Time served (months)        
   Below median (<36) 682 (49.9) 15 (2.2) 1 59 (8.7) 1 36 (5.3) 1
   Above median (>36) 684 (50.1) 65 (9.5) 6.3 (2.7–16.5) 290 (42.4) 7.1 (3.0–18.3) 190 (27.8) 7.6 (3.2–20.1)
Sexual orientation        
   Heterosexual 963 (70.5) 44 (4.6) 1 187 (19.4) 1 132 (13.7) 1
   Homosexual 403 (29.5) 36 (8.9) 2.7 (1.9–7.8) 162 (40.2) 2.9 (2.2–8.3) 94 (23.3) 2.4 (1.5–6.9)
Ever injected drugs        
   Yes 481 (35.2) 55 (11.4) 5.7 (2.4–12.8) 237 (49.3) 5.4 (2.2–11.1) 152 (31.6) 5.3 (2.2–10.7)
   No 885 (64.8) 25 (2.8) 1 112 (12.7) 1 74 (8.4) 1
Ever shared needles or injection implements        
   Yes 977 (71.5) 62 (6.3) 2.0 (1.3–5.2) 269 (27.5) 1.9 (1.2–5.0) 174 (17.8) 1.9 (1.2–5.1)
   No 389 (28.5) 18 (4.6) 1 80 (20.6) 1 52 (13.4) 1
Ever paid or been paid for sex        
   Yes 73 (5.3) 8 (11.0) 2.8 (1.8–8.2) 27 (37.0) 2.1 (1.4–5.5) 19 (26.0) 2.3 (1.5–6.3)
   No 1293 (94.7) 72 (5.6) 1 322 (24.9) 1 207 (16.0) 1
History of STD        
   Yes 491 (35.9) 46 (9.4) 3.4 (2.0–9.3) 178 (36.3) 2.6 (1.8–7.4) 113 (23.0) 2.5 (1.6–7.1)
   No 875 (64.1) 34 (3.9) 1 171 (19.5) 1 113 (12.9) 1
History of blood transfusion        
   Yes 961 (70.4) 57 (5.9) 1.4 (0.8–2.7) 249 (25.9) 1.5 (0.9–2.9) 162 (16.9) 1.5 (0.8–2.8)
   No 405 (29.6) 23 (5.7) 1 100 (24.7) 1 64 (15.8) 1
Ever had sex with an injection drug user        
   Yes 136 (10.0) 9 (6.6) 1.6 (0.9–3.1) 35 (25.7) 1.3 (0.6–2.3) 24 (17.6) 1.4 (0.8–2.6)
   No 1230 (90.0) 71 (5.8) 1 314 (25.5) 1 202 (16.4) 1
Ever snorted drugs        
   Yes 598 (43.8) 37 (6.2) 1.4 (0.8–2.7) 155 (25.9) 1.3 (0.7–2.4) 101 (16.9) 1.3 (0.7–2.5)
   No 768 (56.2) 43 (5.6) 1 194 (25.3) 1 125 (16.3) 1
Ever been tattooed or pierced        
   Yes 219 (16.0) 13 (5.9) 1.2 (0.5–1.8) 56 (25.6) 1.1 (0.4–1.5) 37 (16.9) 1.2 (0.6–1.8)
   No 1147 (84.0) 67 (5.8) 1 293 (25.5) 1 189 (16.5) 1
Ever been cut or assaulted        
   Yes 423 (31.0) 25 (5.9) 1.2 (0.5–1.9) 109 (25.8) 1.2 (0.5–2.0) 71 (16.8) 1.1 (0.4–1.6)
   No 943 (69.0) 55 (5.8) 1 240 (25.5) 1 155 (16.4) 1
  1. *Combined into only two to three categories to minimize the width of confidence intervals.
  2. #Adjusted for age.