Skip to main content

Table 4 Odd ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for HIV, HCV and syphilis seropositivity, and positive HBsAg status according to the sociodemographic characteristics among 445 prison officers in Ghana on univariate analysis

From: Correlates of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among prison inmates and officers in Ghana: A national multicenter study

Sociodemographic characteristic* No. of inmates (%) HIV seropositive HBV seropositive HCV seropositive Syphilis seropositive
   No. (%) OR (95% CI)# No. (%) OR (95% CI)# No. (%) OR 95% CI)# No. (%) OR (95% CI)#
Age (years)          
   25–35 149 (33.4) 8 (5.4) 2.2 (1.5–5.4) 22 (14.8) 2.4 (1.8–6.4) 29 (19.5) 2.3 (1.7–5.9) 14 (9.4) 2.0 (1.5–4.9)
   36–46 148 (33.3) 10 (6.8) 2.8 (2.0–7.8) 19 (12.8) 2.1 (1.5–5.2) 38 (25.7) 3.0 (2.2–8.9) 13 (8.8) 1.9 (1.4–4.7)
   >47 148 (33.3) 4 (2.7) 1 11 (7.4) 1 16 (10.8) 1 8 (5.4) 1
Gender          
   Female 167 (37.5) 12 (7.2) 2.2 (1.5–5.4) 29 (17.4) 2.5 (1.8–6.7) 38 (22.8) 1.8 (1.3–4.5) 20 (12.0) 2.6 (1.9–7.0)
   Male 278 (62.5) 10 (3.6) 1 23 (8.3) 1 45 (16.2) 1 15 (5.4) 1
Marital status          
   Married 203 (45.6) 8 (3.9) 1 20 (9.9) 1 33 (16.3) 1 12 (5.9) 1
   Not married 242 (54.4) 14 (5.8) 1.6 (1.1–3.4) 32 (13.2) 1.6 (1.2–3.5) 50 (20.7) 1.6 (1.2–3.6) 23 (9.5) 1.9 (1.4–4.7)
Educational level attained          
   Middle School 144 (32.4) 9 (6.3) 1.5 (0.9–2.8) 20 (13.9) 1.4 (0.7–2.3) 30 (20.8) 1.3 (0.7–2.0) 14 (9.7) 1.5 (0.8–2.7)
   Junior Secondary School 69 (15.5) 4 (5.8) 1.4 (0.9–2.6) 10 (14.5) 1.5 (0.9–2.8) 15 (21.7) 1.4 (0.8–2.3) 5 (7.2) 1.1 (0.5–1.8)
   Senior Secondary School 212 (47.6) 8 (3.8) 1 21 (9.9) 1 34 (16.0) 1 14 (6.6) 1
   University/College 20 (4.5) 1 (5.0) 1.3 (0.7–2.0) 2 (10.0) 1.0 (0.3–1.3) 4 (20.0) 1.3 (0.7–2.0) 2 (10.0) 1.5 (0.8–2.7)
Duration of employment in prison service (years)          
   Below median (<10) 223 (50.1) 9 (4.0) 1 20 (9.0) 1 33 (14.8) 1 15 (6.7) 1
   Above median (>10) 222 (49.9) 13 (5.9) 1.6 (1.1–3.4) 32 (14.4) 1.9 (1.4–4.5) 50 (22.5) 1.9 (1.4–4.6) 20 (9.0) 1.5 (1.1–3.2)
History of STD          
   Yes 75 (16.9) 6 (8.0) 2.0 (1.4–4.7) 17 (22.7) 2.9 (2.1–8.2) 21 (28.0) 2.1 (1.5–5.3) 14 (18.7) 3.8 (2.6–10.5)
   No 370 (83.1) 16 (4.3) 1 35 (9.5) 1 62 (16.8) 1 21 (5.7) 1
History of blood transfusion          
   Yes 90 (20.2) 5 (5.6) 1.3 (0.7–2.0) 11 (12.2) 1.3 (0.6–2.0) 19 (21.1) 1.5 (0.9–2.8) 8 (8.9) 1.3 (0.6–2.0)
   No 355 (79.8) 17 (4.8) 1 41 (11.6) 1 64 (18.0) 1 27 (7.6) 1
Ever been tattooed or pierced          
   Yes 58 (13.0) 3 (5.2) 1.2 (0.6–1.9) 7 (12.1) 1.3 (0.6–2.0) 11 (19.0) 1.3 (0.7–2.0) 5 (8.6) 1.3 (0.6–2.0)
   No 387 (87.0) 19 (4.9) 1 45 (11.6) 1 72 (18.6) 1 30 (7.8) 1
Ever been cut or assaulted          
   Yes 93 (20.9) 5 (5.4) 1.2 (0.6–1.9) 11 (11.8) 1.2 (0.5–1.8) 18 (19.4) 1.3 (0.7–2.0) 8 (8.6) 1.3 (0.6–2.0)
   No 352 (79.1) 17 (4.8) 1 41 (11.6) 1 65 (18.5) 1 27 (7.7) 1
  1. *Combined into only two to four categories to minimize the width of confidence intervals.
  2. #Adjusted for age.