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Table 2 Duration and quality of coverage of seven techniques for hand disinfection (repetition of steps)

From: Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection

Type of treatment Duration
(median)
Duration
(mean)
Location of untreated skin areas Size of untreated skin areas
(back of hands)
    Whole hand Palmar side Dorsal side 0% < 5% 5% – 15% > 15%
1 repetition of sequence 14 s 14.7 s 93% 67% 93% 7% 33% 33% 27%
2 repetitions of sequence 28 s 26.7 s 80% 40% 80% 20% 33% 40% 7%
3 repetitions of sequence 37 s 37.4 s 73% 20% 73% 27% 40% 33% 0%
4 repetitions of sequence 48 s 49.7 s 80% 0% 80% 20% 47% 27% 7%
5 repetitions of sequence 73 s 67.6 s 80% 20% 80% 20% 60% 20% 0%
"responsible application" of non health-care worker test subjects 25 s 25.0 s 53% 13% 53% 47% 47% 7% 0%
"responsible application" of healthcare workers 25.5 s 27.8 s 55% 15% 55% 45% 45% 10% 0%
  1. Comparison of hygienic hand disinfection when performed with a propanol-based hand rub in six treatment variations: duration, and proportion and location of untreated skin areas, with size given for the back of the hands.