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Table 1 Duration and quality of coverage of six techniques for hand disinfection (repetition of steps).

From: Influence of rub-in technique on required application time and hand coverage in hygienic hand disinfection

Type of hand rub Repetitions of six steps (n) Duration (median) Duration (mean) Location of untreated skin areas Size of untreated skin areas (back of hands)
     Whole hand Palmar side Dorsal side 0% < 5% 5% – 15% > 15%
PBHR* 1 17 s 16.7 s 100% 20% 100% 0% 7% 40% 53%
PBHR 2 23 s 24.7 s 93% 53% 87% 13% 40% 20% 27%
PBHR 3 25 s 25.7 s 93% 20% 93% 7% 67% 27% 0%
PBHR 4 35 s 34.9 s 87% 33% 80% 20% 53% 7% 20%
PBHR 5 40 s 37.3 s 67% 13% 67% 33% 53% 13% 0%
Reference alcohol 5 (twice) 70 s 74.8 s 53% 7% 53% 47% 47% 7% 0%
  1. Application of a propanol-based hand rub in five treatment variations, or application of the reference alcohol: duration, and proportion and location of untreated skin areas, with size given for the back of hands; *PBHR = propanol-based hand rub.