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Table 1 Factors associated with an injection site infection in last year among injecting drug users: England 2003/05.

From: Frequency, factors and costs associated with injection site infections: Findings from a national multi-site survey of injecting drug users in England

   Yes N
(Total = 990)
Univariate Odds
Ratio with 95%
confidence interval
Mulitvariate Adjusted
Odds Ratio with 95%
confidence interval
Gender Male 263 755 35% 1.0   1.0  
  Female 102 235 43% 1.4 1.1 – 1.9 1.7 1.2 – 2.4
Received prescribed substitute drug Currently 178 511 35% 1.0   1.0  
  Previously 150 322 47% 1.6 1.2 – 2.2 1.7 1.3 – 2.4
  Never 37 157 24% 0.6 0.4 – 0.9 0.9 0.5 – 1.3
Age in Years <= 24 47 186 25% 1.0   1.0  
  25 – 29 103 273 38% 1.8 1.2 – 2.7 1.6 1.0 – 2.6
  30 – 34 107 258 41% 2.1 1.4 – 3.2 2.0 1.3 – 3.2
  35+ 108 273 40% 1.9 1.3 – 2.9 1.9 1.2 – 3.0
Inject into leg last 4 weeks No 212 701 30% 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 153 289 53% 2.6 2.0 – 3.4 2.2 1.6 – 3.1
Inject into groin last 4 weeks No 176 543 32% 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 189 447 42% 1.5 1.2 – 2.0 1.4 1.1 – 1.9
Inject into hand last 4 weeks No 245 759 32% 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 120 231 52% 2.3 1.7 – 3.1 1.9 1.3 – 2.6
Clean Needle/Syringe for reuse No 77 259 30% 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 288 731 39% 1.5 1.1 – 2.1 1.5 1.1 – 2.1
Inject crack last 4 weeks No 188 588 32% 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 177 402 44% 1.7 1.3 – 2.2 1.5 1.1 – 2.0
Days injected last 4 weeks <= 13 days 46 181 25% 1.0   1.0  
  14 – 27 days 84 208 40% 2.0 1.3 – 3.1 1.8 1.2 – 2.9
  28 days 235 601 39% 1.9 1.3 – 2.7 1.5 1.0 – 2.3
Anti-HCV Positive No 135 454 30% 1.0   1.0  
  Yes 230 536 43% 1.8 1.4 – 2.3 1.5 1.1 – 2.0
Homeless Never 36 140 26% 1.0   
  Over a year ago 98 266 37% 1.7 1.1 – 2.7   
  In last year 231 584 40% 1.9 1.2 – 2.9   
Number of years injecting <= 4 53 210 25% 1.0   
  5 – 9 120 300 40% 2.0 1.3 – 2.9   
  10 – 14 87 227 38% 1.8 1.2 – 2.8   
  15 + 105 253 42% 2.1 1.4 – 3.1   
Inject into neck last 4 weeks No 288 841 34% 1.0   
  Yes 77 149 52% 2.1 1.4 – 2.9   
Prepare drug using citric acid No 12 59 20% 1.0   
  Yes 353 931 38% 2.4 1.3 – 4.6   
Times injected last full day Once 53 168 32% 1.0   
  Twice 77 266 29% 0.9 0.6 – 1.3   
  Thee times 81 203 40% 1.4 0.9 – 2.2   
  4+ times 154 353 44% 1.7 1.1 – 2.5   
Clean injecting site last 4 weeks Never 185 444 42% 1.0   
  Sometimes 83 224 37% 0.8 0.6 – 1.1   
  Always 97 322 30% 0.6 0.4 – 0.8   
Times injected with last needle Once 186 549 34% 1.0   
  Twice 68 189 36% 1.1 0.8 – 1.5   
  Three times 39 100 39% 1.2 0.8 – 1.9   
  4+ times 72 152 47% 1.8 1.2 – 2.5   
Ever had voluntary confidential test for hepatitis C Yes 257 652 39% 1.4 1.0 – 1.8  
  No 108 338 32% 1.0    
Anti-HBc positive No 239 680 35% 1.0   
  Yes 126 310 41% 1.3 1.0 – 1.7   
  1. † Variable not in final model.
  2. Note: Reporting an injection site infection in previous year was not associated with: having been imprisoned; having had an overdose; injecting amphetamines; washing hands before injection; injecting into arms; using vitamin c/ascorbic acid, lemon juice or vinegar to dissolve drugs; ever having had voluntary-confidential test for HIV; and uptake of hepatitis B vaccine.