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Table 2 Characteristics of HIV-infected patients with empiric compared to definitive diagnoses of Pneumocystis pneumonia.

From: Outcome of HIV-associated Pneumocystis pneumonia in hospitalized patients from 2000 through 2003

Characteristic Empiric n = 127 Definitive n = 165 p-value
Age, median years, (range) 41 (23–68) 40 (24–60) NS
Gender, n (%)    NS
Male 107 (84.3) 139 (84.2)  
Female 20 (15.7) 26 (15.8)  
Race/ethnicity, n (%)    < 0.001*
White 14 (11.0) 16 (9.9)  
Black 60 (47.2) 42 (26.0)  
Hispanic/Latino 53 (41.7) 98 (60.5)  
Other/unknown 0 (0) 9 (5.5)  
HIV risk factor, n (%)    NS
Men who have sex with men 39 (30.7) 58 (35.2)  
Intravenous drug use 18 (14.2) 14 (8.5)  
Heterosexual 36 (28.3) 44 (26.7)  
Blood transfusion 1 (0.8) 2 (1.2)  
Unknown 33 (26.0) 47 (28.5)  
Medical history, n (%)    
Initial HIV diagnosis 26 (20.5) 54 (32.7) 0.02
History of PCP 38 (29.9) 34 (20.6) 0.04
Use of PCP prophylaxis 44 (34.6) 48 (29.1)  
Use of HAART 57 (44.9) 50 (30.3) 0.02
Current smoker 54 (42.5) 62 (37.6)  
Laboratory values    NS
CD4, cells/μl, median(range)(n = 131) 27 (0–697) 17 (0–267)  
HIV viral level, median log copies/ml (range)(n = 57) 5.1 (2.6–5.9) 5.3 (1.7–5.9)  
Albumin, g/dl, median (range) 2.5 (0.6–3.7) 2.4 (1.0–3.8)  
LDH, U/l, median (range) 317 (129–851) 362 (119–962)  
Alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, mm Hg, median (range)(n = 129) 41.5 (18.0–89.0) 43.4 (22.3–82.0)  
Complications, n (%)    
ICU admission 30 (23.6) 70 (42.4) 0.001
Mechanical ventilation 10 (7.9) 29 (17.6) 0.02
Pneumothorax 2 (1.6) 18 (10.9) 0.002
Respiratory failure after 5 days 1 (0.8) 9 (5.5) NS
Change of PCP therapy 1 (0.8) 13 (7.9) 0.005
HAART started in hospital, n (%) 5 (7.7) 11 (10.5) NS
Outcome    
Died in-hospital 8 (6.3) 26 (15.8) 0.01
  1. Abbreviations: HAART, highly active antiretroviral therapy; ICU, intensive care unit; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; NS, not significant; PCP, Pneumocystis pneumonia.*For overall comparison. p < 0.001 for blacks compared to Hispanic/Latinos and p = 0.018 for blacks compared to others/unknown. p-values adjusted for multiple comparisons.