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Table 2 Cumulative proportion of patients needing surgery within 1 year and clinical characteristics in 326 episodes of infective endocarditis

From: Short-term and one-year outcome of infective endocarditis in adult patients treated in a Finnish teaching hospital during 1980–2004

  Need for surgery n (%)
  N In-hospitala p value 3 months p value 6 months p value 1 year p value
Sex    0.002   0.006   0.010   0.011
   Male 234 74 (31.6)   78 (35.0)   83 (37.6)   88 (40.2)  
   Female 92 15 (16.3)   16 (18.2)   19 (22.1)   21 (24.8)  
Age    <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001
   18–64 years 209 73 (34.9)   77 (38.1)   84 (41.9)   88 (44.1)  
   ≥65 years 117 16 (13.7)   17 (15.4)   18 (16.5)   21 (20.2)  
Etiology    0.584b   0.516b   0.1210b   0.147b
   Staphylococcus aureus 75 17 (22.7)   19 (28.6)   19 (28.6)   20 (30.4)  
   CoNSc 31 9 (29.0)   9 (30.6)   9 (30.6)   9 (30.6)  
   Viridans streptococci 67 20 (22.9)   20 (31.1)   25 (39.9)   28 (45.4)  
   Enterococcus faecalis 25 4 (160)   4 (17.4)   4 (17.4)   4 (17.4)  
   Streptococcus pneumoniae 11 4 (36.4)   5 (49.1)   6 (61.8)   6 (61.8)  
   Other 28 8 (28.6)   8 (28.6)   10 (36.8)   10 (36.8)  
   Negative 89 27 (30.0)   29 (33.1)   29 (33.1)   32.(37.0)  
Affected valves    <0.001b   <0.001b   <0.001b   <0.001b
   Aortic 113 44 (38.9)   45 (42.4)   46 (43.5)   48 (45.8)  
   Mitral 96 11 (11.5)   14 (15.1)   20 (21.9)   24 (26.9)  
   Tricuspid 18 0 (0)   0 (0)   0 (0)   0 (0)  
   Two native v alves 32 15 (46.9)   15 (50.5)   16 (55.5)   17 (60.4)  
   Prosthetic valve(s) 67 19 (28.4)   20 (30.9)   20 (30.9)   20 (30.9)  
Echocardiography          
   Major criterion    <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   0.001
Yes 221 77 (34.8)   78 (37.1)   86 (41.6)   89 (43.3)  
No 105 12 (11.4)   16 (16.0)   16 (16.0)   20 (20.5)  
   Vegetation    0.025   0.022   0.003   0.006
Yes 198 66 (33.3)   66 (35.3)   74 (40.3)   77 (42.3)  
No 128 23 (18.0)   28 (22.7)   28 (22.7)   32 (26.3)  
Neurological events d    0.431   0.253   0.247   0.149
Yes 86 28 (32.6)   28 (35.3)   30 (38.3)   33 (43.0)  
No 240 61 (25.4)   66 (28.5)   72 (31.5)   76 (33.5)  
Peripheral emboli d    0.079   0.038   0.072   0.073
Yes 102 36 (36.0)   36 (38.7)   37 (40.1)   39 (42.8)  
No 224 53 (23.5)   58 (26.7)   65 (30.2)   70 (32.9)  
Heart failure d    <0.001   <0.001   <0.001   <0.001
Yes 178 64 (36.0)   67 (40.7)   70 (43.1)   73 (45.6)  
No 148 25 (16.9)   27(18.5)   32 (22.0)   36 (25.0)  
Intravenous drug use    0.170   0.074   0.045   0.030
Yes 25 3 (12.0)   3 (12.6)   3 (12.6)   3 (12.6)  
No 301 86 (28.6)   91 (31.7)   99 (35.0)   106 (39.7)  
ESR on admission e    0.005   0.004   0.010   0.003
   ≥50 mm/h 99 18 (18.2)   19 (19.8)   22 (23.2)   23 (24.5)  
   < 50 mm/h 93 31 (33.3)   35 (39.6)   36 (40.8)   40 (46.0)  
  1. aMean (SD) duration of in-hospital treatment was 55 (33), range 4 to 272 days; bp values for overall group differences; ccoagulase-negative staphylococci; dwithin 3 months from admission; edata on erythrocyte sedimentation rate available for 192 episodes